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General and Applied Toxicology, 6 Volume Set, 3rd Edition




General and Applied Toxicology, 6 Volume Set, 3rd Edition

Bryan Ballantyne (Editor), Timothy C. Marrs (Editor), Tore Syversen (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-72327-2 October 2009 3940 Pages

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Encompassing 150 articles written by leading scientists in the field, the third edition of General and Applied Toxicology provides a comprehensive and in-depth review of the basic science of toxicology, its specializations, and the application of toxicological knowledge.

This new edition reflects developments within the field that have taken place since the second edition was published in 1999.  These include:  

  • New information developed in the areas of both the fundamental and applied aspects of toxicology
  • Considerable increase in the development of fundamental information and its applications, refinement of technical methods, advances in mechanistic toxicology, and greater interest in areas of toxicology previously regarded as of limited scope
  • Changing approaches to methodological, interpretative, regulatory, and ethical aspects of basic and applied toxicology

General and Applied Toxicology, 3rd Edition is the first port of call for academic researchers, industrial researchers, regulatory professionals, and advanced students looking for timely and authoritative information in the field. Due to the increase in public and media interest in exposure to toxic substances, this provides an indispensable general reference source for general physicians, lawyers, law enforcement agencies, information resource facilities, and members of the general public.

New online resource available now!

In 2011, the content from the third edition of General and Applied Toxicology merged with the two-volume Handbook of Systems Toxicology. The result? General, Applied and Systems Toxicology - a new online resource combining traditional toxicology with the latest developments to present the ultimate reference in toxicology!  For full details visit  

Preface to Third Edition.

Preface to Second Edition.

Preface to First Edition.

List of Contributors.

Frequently used Abbreviations.



1 Basic Elements of Toxicology (Bryan Ballantyne, Timothy C. Marrs and Tore Syversen).

2 Acute Toxicity (David J. Andrew).

3 Repeated Exposure Toxicity (Bryan Ballantyne).

4 Biotransformation of Xenobiotics (John A. Timbrell and Timothy C. Marrs).

5 Toxicokinetics of Xenobiotic and Metabolite Distribution and Excretion (Mario A. Inchiosa, Jr. and Mario E. Inchiosa).

6 Toxicokinetics (Ashley Roberts and Andrew G. Renwick).

7 Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling (Hon-Wing Leung).

8 Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures (Kannan Krishnan and Jonathan Boyd).

9 Evaluation of Toxicological Interactions for the Dose-Response Assessment of Chemical Mixtures (Kannan Krishnan, Sastry Isukapalli and Jonathan Boyd).


10 Molecular and Cellular Concepts in Toxicology (Michael A. Lynes).

11 Cell Death and Apoptosis (Sidhartha D. Ray and George B. Corcoran).

12 Introduction to Mitochondrial Toxicity (Yvonne Will and James A. Dykens).

13 Toxicity of Peroxisome Proliferators (John P. Vanden Heuvel).

14 Cellular Tight Junctions as Mediators of Adverse Effects (Yula Sambuy).

15 Reactive Oxygen Species in the Induction of Toxicity (Giorgio Lenaz and Paola Strocchi).

16 Glutathione and Glutathione-S-Transferase in Detoxification Mechanisms (Xianchun Li).

17 Nitric Oxide Pathways in Toxic Responses (Jeffrey D. Laskin, Diane E. Heck and Debra L. Laskin).

18 A Metabolomic Perspective of Small Molecule Toxicity (Andrew D. Patterson and Jeffrey R. Idle).

19 Xenobiotic-Induced Inflammation: Pathogenesis and Mediators (Peter J. M. Clements).

20 Chemokines as Mediators of Toxicant-Induced Inflammation and Fibrosis (Francois Huaux, Sandra Lo Re and Dominique Lison).

21 Toxicogenomics and the Evolution of Systems Toxicology (Michael D. Waters and B. Alex Merrick).

22 Endocrine Disruption in Toxic Responses (Shigeyuki Kitamura, Kazumi Sugihara, Kazuo Nakamura, Yaichiro Kotake, Akihiko Kashiwagi and Nariaki Fujimoto).



23 Environmental and Endogenous Factors Determining the Expression of Toxicity (Karen E. Stine).

24 Chronotoxicology (Karam F. Soliman and Elizabeth A. Mazzio).

25 Effects of Chirality on Toxicity (Mae Grace Nilos, Jay Gan and Daniel Schlenk).

26 The Influence of Temperature on Toxicity (Christopher J. Gordon and Pamela J. Rowsey).

27 Development of Tolerance to the Toxicity of Xenobiotics (Frode Fonnum).


28 Statistics for Toxicology (Peter N. Lee and David Lovell).

29 Pathological Techniques in Toxicology (Peter Greaves).

30 Clinical Chemistry in Toxicity Testing: Scope and Methods (Sylvie Gosselin, Lila Ramaiah and Lesley Earl).

31 Haematology and Toxicology (Timothy C. Marrs and Simon Warren).

32 Imaging Techniques in Neurotoxicology Research and Development (Philippe Hantson and Thierry Duprez).

33 Alternatives to In vivo Studies in Toxicology (Shayne C. Gad).

34 Antidotal Studies (D. Nicholas Bateman and Timothy C. Marrs).

35 Toxicity Data Obtained From Human Studies (Martin F. Wilks and Hugo Kupferschmidt).

36 Significance of Biochemical Markers in Applied Toxicology (Fernando Gil and Antonio F. Hernández).

37 Oncology Biomarkers (Michael A. Tainsky).

38 Quality Assurance in Toxicology Studies (J. Rodney Pateman).

39 Animal Welfare in the Toxicology Laboratory (Roy C. Myers and Bennett J. Varsho).

40 Chemical and Biological Occupational Hazards in the Toxicology Laboratory (Bryan Ballantyne).

41 Information Resources for Toxicology (Philip Thomas Copestake).


42 Toxicities Associated with Parenteral Nutrition (Judy L. Aschner and Heather M. Furlong).

43 Peroral Toxicity (William J. Brock).

44 Cutaneous Toxicology (Jim E. Riviere and Nancy A. Monteiro-Riviere).

45 Inhalation Toxicity (Geoff H. Pigott).

46 Mixed Routes of Exposure (John J. Clary).



47 Neurotoxicology (Frode Fonnum).

48 The Role of Behavioural Toxicity in Risk Assessment (Bernard Weiss).

49 Peripheral Chemosensory Irritation: Fundamentals, Investigation and Applied Considerations (Bryan Ballantyne).

50 Responses of the Kidney to Toxic Compounds (Edward A. Lock).

51 Allergic Asthma and Rhinitis: Toxicological Considerations (Jean F. Regal).

52 Laboratory Recognition of Potential Xenobiotic Respiratory Sensitizers (Marsha D.W. Ward and Cherie Pucheu-Haston).

53 Ophthalmic Toxicology (Bryan Ballantyne).

54 Cutaneous Toxicology (Steven J. Hermansky).

55 Photoallergy (Ruta Dubakiene).

56 Ototoxicity (Andrew Forge, Ruth Taylor and Ernest S. Harpur).

57 Cardiac Toxicology (Lalita A. Bharadwaj).

58 Cardiac Toxicity of Anthracyclines (Richard D. Olson and Barry J. Cusack).

59 Hepatotoxicity (Richard H. Hinton, Paul Grasso and Timothy C. Marrs).

60 Toxicology of the Exocrine Pancreas (John R. Foster).

61 Skeletal Muscle Toxicology (M. Alexander Kenaston, Ellen A. Abramson, Matthew E. Pfeiffer and Edward M. Mills).

62 Cartilage and Bone as Target Tissues for Toxic Materials (Alan B.G. Lansdown).

63 Toxicology of the Endocrine System (Robert W. Kapp Jr. and John A. Thomas).

64 Immunotoxicology (Robert W. Luebke, Celine A. Beamer, Christal Bowman, Jamie DeWitt, Kymberly Gowdy, Victor J. Johnson, David M. Shepherd and Dori M. Germolec).

65 Phototoxicology (J. Frank Nash).



66 Mutagenesis (Anthony Lynch).

67 Cytogenetics (Diana Anderson, Adolf Baumgartner and Eduardo Cemeli).

68 Genetic Toxicology Testing and its Relevance to Human Risk and Safety Evaluation (Elisabeth Lorge).

69 Carcinogenesis and Carcinogens that are also Genotoxic (Douglas McGregor).

70 Nongenotoxic or Epigenetic Carcinogenesis (Christopher J. Powell and Sir Colin Berry).

71 Structure–Activity Relationships for Carcinogenic Potential (Raghuraman Venkatapathy, Nina Ching Y. Wang, Todd M. Martin, Paul F. Harten and Douglas Young).

72 Short-Term Tests for the Determination of Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Potential of Xenobiotics (Alok Dhawan).

73 Biomarkers of Exposure to Carcinogens (Paul T.J. Scheepers).

74 Epigenetic Mechanisms and their Toxicological Significance (Rebecca E. Watson).

75 Reproductive Toxicology (Norbert Makori, Satoru Oneda, Patricia R. McElhatton, Jennifer M. Ratcliffe and Frank Sullivan).

76 Developmental Toxicology (John M. DeSesso and Calvin C. Willhite).

77 Developmental Neurotoxicity (Susan L. Makris and Kathleen C. Raffaele).

78 Developmental Immunotoxicology (Rodney R. Dietert).

79 Drug Toxicity in Neonates, Infants and Young Children (Imti Choonara).

80 Toxicology of the Placenta (Ramesh C. Gupta).

81 Susceptibility of Neonatal Rats to Xenobiotics (Mutsuko Hirata-Koizumi, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Akihiko Hirose and Makoto Ema).


82 Air Pollution (Robert L. Maynard).

83 Indoor Air Quality (Rikke B. Jørgensen, Sten O. Hanssen, Jan V. Bakke and Ellen K. Jensen).

84 Aquatic Toxicology: Concepts, Practice, New Directions (Peter G. Wells).

85 Environmental Endocrine Toxicology (Poul Bjerregaard).

86 Assessing Impacts of Environmental Contaminants on Wildlife (Joseph P. Sullivan and Elwood F. Hill).

87 Soil and Fresh Water (Trond Peder Flaten and Eiliv Steinnes).

88 Biological Criteria for Water Quality in Relation to Human Health (Robert A. Howd).

89 Interactions between Occupational and Environmental Factors in Toxicology, Hazard Evaluation and Risk Assessment (James Gomes and B. Meek).

90 Susceptibility of Children to Environmental Xenobiotics (Alan D. Woolf and Megan Sandel).

91 From Diet to Detox: Controversial Therapies in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (Michael J. Fitzpatrick).

92 Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Toxicological Questions and Mechanisms (Martin L. Pall).



93 Clinical Toxicology (Alister Vale and Sally Bradberry).

94 Occupational Toxicology (Chuanfang Jin, Charles M. Werntz, III and Alan M. Ducatman).

95 Occupational Toxicology and Occupational Hygiene within the European Union (EU) Chemicals Regulation (Steven Fairhurst and Elanor Ball).

96 Forensic Toxicology (Erkki Vuori and Ilkka Ojanperä).

97 Veterinary Toxicology (Frederick W. Oehme and Wilson K. Rumbeiha).

98 Essentials of Epidemiology for Toxicologists (David Coggon).

99 Aviation Toxicology (Thomas C. Kupiec and Vishnu Raj).

100 Space Toxicology: Toxicological Risk Management of Human Health during Space Exploration (Noreen N. Khan-Mayberry and John T. James).

101 The Toxicologist as Expert Witness (Ira S. Richards and Marie M. Bourgeois).


102 Regulatory Toxicology (H. Paul A. Illing and Timothy C. Marrs).

103 Basic Toxicological Issues in Product-Safety Evaluations (David W. Hobson).

104 Occupation, Toxic Exposures and Health Effects (Hilton C. Lewinsohn).

105 Combustion Toxicology and Implications for Adverse Human Health Effects (Bryan Ballantyne).

106 Biological Correlates of Low-Level Electromagnetic-Field Exposure (Jitendra Behari).

107 Risk Assessment of Chemicals (Leah D. Stuchal and Stephen M. Roberts).

108 Toxicogenomics in Risk Assessment (Susan L. Makris and Susan Y. Euling).

109 Dose-Response Analysis in Experimental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (Robert G. Sussman, Edward V. Sargent and Todd L. Davidson).

110 Hormesis and Risk Assessment (Edward J. Calabrese and Paolo F. Ricci).

111 Chemical Incidents—Emergency Planning, Preparedness, Response and Recovery.Community Considerations (David Russell and John Simpson).

112 Empirical Methods and Default Approaches in Consideration of Exposure Duration in Dose-Response Relationships (George M. Woodall, Jeffrey S. Gift and Gary L. Foureman).

113 Biomonitoring of the Workplace and Environment (Peter J. Boogaard).

114 The Role of Poison Centres in Basic and Clinical Toxicology (Alan H. Hall and Chantal Bismuth).


115 Education of the Toxicologist (Robert Snyder and Jason R. Richardson).

116 Ethical, Legal, Social and Professional Issues in Toxicology (Steven G. Gilbert and David L. Eaton).

117 Medicolegal and Ethical Issues in the Practice of Toxicology: A British Perspective (Denis A. D’Auria).

118 Ethical Issues Related to Animal Welfare Considerations in the Toxicology Laboratory (Robert F. Phalen).

119 Ethical Issues in Toxic Chemical Hazard Evaluation, Risk Assessment and Precautionary Communications (Claude Viau).


120 Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents (Robert L. Maynard and Robert P. Chilcott).

121 National and International Aspects on Bioterrorism and Biosecurity (Philippe Bossi).

122 Chemical Terrorism (Bryan Ballantyne).

123 Evaluating the Long-Term Health Consequences of United States Combat Deployments: Toxicology and the Law (Mark Brown and Kenneth Hyams).

124 Biological Toxins in Warfare and Terrorism (R. Gregory Evans).

125 Radiation Terrorism (Robin Beverly McFee).

126 Depleted Uranium: Toxicology and Health Consequences (Alexandra C. Miller).

127 Toxicology and Disasters (H. Paul A. Illing).

128 Long-Term Adverse Health Consequences from Exposure to Products Generated from Major Disaster Sites (Matthew P. Mauer).



129 Toxicology of Food Additives (Susan M. Barlow).

130 Safety Assessment of Foods Obtained from Crops Developed using Biotechnology (Bryan Delaney).

131 Biotechnology: Safety Assessment of Biotherapeutics and Agribiotechnology-Derived Foods (John A. Thomas).

132 Food Allergy and Intolerance (Martinus Løvik).

133 Toxicology of Pesticides (Ian C. Dewhurst and Timothy C. Marrs).

134 Toxicology of Biocides (Bryan Ballantyne).

135 Toxicological Considerations for Pharmaceutical Products (Lynnda Reid).

136 Toxicological Considerations in Relation to the Regulatory Safety Evaluation of Medical Devices (Raju Kammula).

137 Dermal Toxicology of Cosmetics and Body-Care Products (David Basketter and Linda Lea).

138 Organic Solvents (Håkon L. Leira, Frode Fonnum and Tore Syversen).

139 Toxicology and Biological Monitoring of Metals (Monica Nordberg and Gunnar F. Nordberg).

140 Toxicology of Substances that Affect Performance and Behaviour (John P. Thompson).

141 Drugs of Addiction in the Domestic, Occupational and Sports Environment (Felix K. Adatsi).

142 Nanotoxicology—The Toxicology of Nanomaterials (Kristin Gellein and Tore Syversen).

143 Radiation Toxicology (Naomi H. Harley).


144 Poisons of Animal Origin (Gregory P. Wedin, Daniel E. Keyler and Elisabeth F. Bilden).

145 Poisons of Plant Origin (Deon van der Merwe).

146 Mycotoxins with a Special Focus on Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins and Fumonisins (Pieter S. Steyn, Wentzel C.A. Gelderblom, Gordon S. Shephard and Fanie R. van Heerden).

147 Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses: Significance, Occurrence and Mitigation in the Food Chain (Wayne L. Bryden).

148 Botulism (Davide Lonati, Ornella Rossetto, Lucia Fenicia and Carlo Locatelli).

149 Ricin: Chemistry, Sources, Exposures, Toxicology and Medical Aspects (J. Michael Lord and Gareth D. Griffiths).


"This is an easy-to-read, well referenced book that will serve as an excellent companion to traditional core pharmaceutics texts." (The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, September 2010)

“Overall this is an excellent, comprehensive reference on toxicology and a good backup for a textbook, with abundant, excellent illustrations.” (CHOICE, September 2010)

"The main merit of this book is as an immense educational resource, primarily for students, covering toxicology in its broadest applications and containing highly specialised material not covered elsewhere. Many chapters are first class reviews written by leading authorities and these will provide advanced subject reviews from which to launch into the primary literature. It has clearly been a massive undertaking which has been completed with commendable commitment and production quality is excellent. It is also a text of few competitors and outstandingly good value, and all things considered must be rated as excellent for quality, novelty, scope and overall contribution to the toxicological literature." (BTS Newsletter, Summer 2010)

"There are many wonderfully and masterfully written chapters that relate basic science to its practical applications." (The Annals of Pharmacotherapy -  September 2010).