Skip to main content

Integrated Membrane Systems and Processes

Integrated Membrane Systems and Processes

Angelo Basile, Catherine Charcosset

ISBN: 978-1-118-73908-2

Jan 2016

424 pages

In Stock

£110.00

* VAT information

Description

The book examines the possibility of integrating different membrane unit operations (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and gas separation) in the same industrial cycle or in combination with conventional separation systems. It gives careful analysis of the technical aspects, and the possible fields of industrial development.

The book reviews many original solutions in water desalination, agro-food productions and wastewater treatments, highlighting the advantages achievable in terms of product quality, compactness, rationalization and optimization of productive cycles, reduction of environmental impact and energy saving.  Also included are examples of membrane reactors and their integration with a fuel cell; polymeric membranes in the integrated gasification combined cycle power plants; integrating a membrane reformer into a solar system; and  potential application of membrane integrated systems in the fusion reactor fuel cycle.

With detailed analysis and broad coverage, the book is divided into two sections: Bio-applications and Inorganic Applications.

List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

1 Ultrafiltration, Microfiltration, Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis in Integrated Membrane Processes 1
Catherine Charcosset

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Membrane Processes 2

1.2.1 Ultrafiltration, Microfiltration and Nanofiltration 2

1.2.2 Reverse Osmosis 3

1.2.3 Membrane Distillation 3

1.2.4 Electrodialysis 4

1.2.5 Membrane Bioreactors 5

1.3 Combination of Various Membrane Processes 6

1.3.1 Pressure-Driven Separation Processes 6

1.3.2 Membrane Distillation and Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes 12

1.3.3 Electrodialysis and Pressure-Driven Membrane Processes 13

1.3.4 Membrane Bioreactors and Pressure-Driven Separation Processes 14

1.3.5 Other Processes and Pressure-Driven Separation Processes 15

1.4 Conclusion 17

List of Abbreviations 18

References 18

2 Bioseparations Using Integrated Membrane Processes 23
Raja Ghosh

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Integrated Bioseparation Processes Involving Microfiltration 24

2.3 Integrated Bioseparation Processes Involving Ultrafiltration 28

2.4 Conclusion 31

References 32

3 Integrated Membrane Processes in the Food Industry 35
Alfredo Cassano

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Fruit Juice Processing 36

3.2.1 Fruit Juice Clarification 36

3.2.2 Fruit Juice Concentration 38

3.2.3 Integrated Systems in Fruit Juice Processing 40

3.3 Milk and Whey Processing 48

3.3.1 Integrated Systems in Milk Processing 48

3.3.2 Integrated Systems in Cheesemaking 51

3.3.3 Integrated Systems in Whey Processing 52

3.4 Conclusions 54

List of Abbreviations 54

References 55

4 Continuous Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass via Integrated Membrane Processes 61
Mohammadmahdi Malmali and S. Ranil Wickramasinghe

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Continuous Enzymatic Hydrolysis 63

4.3 Integrated Submerged Membrane System 65

4.4 Sugar Concentration 66

4.5 Sugar Concentration and Hydrolysate Detoxification by Nanofiltration 68

4.6 Statistical Design of Experiments 69

4.7 Analysis of Variance using Response Surface Methodology 69

4.8 Future Challenges 74

4.9 Conclusion 75

Acknowledgements 75

List of Abbreviations 75

List of Symbols 75

References 76

5 Integrated Membrane Processes for the Preparation of Emulsions, Particles and Bubbles 79
Goran T. Vladisavljevi´c

5.1 Introduction 79

5.1.1 Membrane Dispersion Processes 80

5.1.2 Membrane Treatment of Dispersions 81

5.1.3 Comparison of Membrane and Microfluidic Drop Generation Processes 82

5.1.4 Comparison of Membrane and Conventional Homogenisation Processes 83

5.2 Membranes for Preparation of Emulsions and Particles 84

5.2.1 SPG Membrane 84

5.2.2 Microengineered Membranes 90

5.3 Production of Emulsions Using SPG Membrane 92

5.4 Production of Emulsions Using Microengineered Membranes 96

5.5 Factors Affecting Droplet Size in DME 98

5.5.1 Effect of Transmembrane Pressure and Flux 99

5.5.2 Influence of Pore (Channel) Size and Shear Stress on the Membrane Surface 101

5.5.3 Influence of Surfactant 101

5.6 Factors Affecting Droplet Size in PME 103

5.7 Integration of ME with Solid/Semi-Solid Particle Fabrication 104

5.7.1 Integration of ME and Crosslinking of Gel-forming Polymers 104

5.7.2 Integration of ME and Melt Solidification 114

5.7.3 Integration of ME and Polymerisation 115

5.7.4 Integration of ME and Solvent Evaporation/Extraction 118

5.8 Integration of Membrane Permeation and Gas Dispersion 120

5.9 Integration of Membrane Micromixing and Nanoprecipitation 121

5.10 Conclusions 123

List of Acronyms 123

Symbols 124

Subscripts 126

References 126

6 Nanofiltration in Integrated Membrane Processes 141
Bart Van der Bruggen

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Pretreatment for Nanofiltration 144

6.3 Nanofiltration as a Pretreatment Method 146

6.4 Processes in Series 148

6.5 Integrated Processes 150

6.6 Hybrid Processes 153

6.7 Nanofiltration Cascades 156

6.8 Conclusions 158

List of Abbreviations 159

References 159

7 Seawater, Brackish Waters, and Natural Waters Treatment with Hybrid Membrane Processes 165
Maxime Ponti´e and Catherine Charcosset

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 Desalination Market 166

7.2.1 Growth of Desalination Capacity Worldwide 166

7.2.2 Desalination Technologies 167

7.3 Seawater and Brackish Waters Composition 168

7.3.1 Seawater Composition 168

7.3.2 Brackish Water versus Seawater 168

7.3.3 Product Water Specification 170

7.4 Desalination with Integrated Membrane Processes 170

7.4.1 MF/UF–RO 170

7.4.2 NF versus RO 172

7.4.3 NF–RO 174

7.5 Natural Water Treatment Using Hybrid Membrane Processes 176

7.5.1 Natural Organic Matter 178

7.5.2 Arsenic 183

7.5.3 Other Species 186

7.6 Conclusion 190

List of Acronyms 191

References 192

8 Wastewater Treatment Using Integrated Membrane Processes 197
Jinsong Zhang and Anthony G. Fane

8.1 Introduction 197

8.2 IMS Application for Wastewater Treatment: Current Status 198

8.2.1 IMS for Textile Industrial Wastewater: Target to Zero Discharge 198

8.2.2 Integrated Pressure-Driven Membrane Process for Municipal Wastewater Reclamation 200

8.2.3 Integrated Multiple Function Driven Membrane Process for Wastewater Reclamation 212

8.3 Strategic Co-location Concept for Integrated Process Involving RO, PRO, and Wastewater Treatment 219

8.4 Conclusions 221

Nomenclature 221

List of Greek letters 222

References 222

9 Membrane Reactor: An Integrated “Membrane + Reaction” System 231
Angelo Basile, Adolfo Iulianelli and Simona Liguori

9.1 Introduction 231

9.2 Hydrogen Economy 232

9.2.1 Why Membrane Reactors? 232

9.3 Membrane Reactors 235

9.3.1 Membrane Reactors Utilization 236

9.4 Membranes for Membrane Reactors 236

9.4.1 Ceramic Membranes 237

9.4.2 Zeolite Membranes 237

9.4.3 Carbon Membranes 238

9.4.4 Metal Membranes 238

9.4.5 Composite Membranes 239

9.5 Mass Transport Mechanisms for Inorganic Membranes 239

9.6 Applications of Inorganic Membrane Reactors 241

9.6.1 Recent Advances on Hydrogen Production in MRs from Steam Reforming of Renewable Sources 241

9.7 Conclusions 244

List of Symbols 245

List of Abbreviations 245

References 246

10 Membranes for IGCC Power Plants 255
Kamran Ghasemzadeh, Angelo Basile, and Seyyed Mohammad Sadati Tilebon

10.1 Introduction 255

10.2 IGCC Technology for Power Generation 256

10.3 Application of Membranes in an IGCC Power Plants 257

10.3.1 Hydrogen Selective Membranes 264

10.3.2 Oxygen Selective Membranes 272

10.3.3 CO2 Selective Membranes 275

10.4 Conclusion and Future Trends 280

Abbreviations 280

References 281

11 Integration of a Membrane Reactor with a Fuel Cell 285
Viktor Hacker, Merit Bodner, and Alexander Schenk

11.1 Introduction 285

11.2 Fuel Cell Basics 286

11.2.1 Reaction Mechanisms 287

11.2.2 Electrochemical Basics of the Fuel Cell 289

11.3 Different Types of Fuel Cells 292

11.3.1 Methods of Classification 292

11.3.2 Fuel Cell Types 294

11.4 Contaminations of the PEFC 295

11.4.1 Anode Gas Stream 295

11.4.2 Cathode Gas Stream 297

11.4.3 Contaminations of Components 298

11.5 Methods to Avoid Poisoning 298

11.5.1 Increasing the Fuel Cell Tolerance towards Contaminations 299

11.5.2 Avoiding Contaminations 300

11.6 Conclusion 302

List of Abbreviations 302

List of Symbols 302

References 303

12 Solar Membrane Reactor 307
Kamran Ghasemzadeh, Angelo Basile, and Abbas Aghaeinejad-Meybodi

12.1 Introduction 307

12.2 Configurations of Solar MR Systems 308

12.2.1 Solar MRs for Water and Wastewater Treatment 309

12.2.2 Solar MRs for Hydrogen Production 312

12.3 Solar MRs Application from a Modeling Point of View 319

12.3.1 Water Decomposition Literature 319

12.3.2 Steam Reforming Literature 320

12.4 Solar MRs Application from an Experimental Point of View 322

12.4.1 Water Decomposition Literature 322

12.4.2 Water Electrolysis Literature 329

12.4.3 Steam Reforming Literature 331

12.5 The Main Challenges 334

12.6 Conclusion and Future Trends 335

List of Abbreviations 335

References 336

13 Membrane-Adsorption Integrated Systems/Processes 343
Sayed S. Madaeni and Ehsan Salehi

13.1 Introduction 343

13.2 Adsorption Pretreatment for Membranes 345

13.3 Integrated Membrane-Adsorption Systems 347

13.3.1 LPM-Adsorption Integration 348

13.3.2 Membrane-Adsorption Bioreactors 352

13.3.3 MABR Operating Conditions 354

13.3.4 MABR Applications 355

13.4 Membrane Adsorbents 356

13.4.1 Protein-Adsorbent Membranes 357

13.4.2 Metal-Adsorbent Membranes 358

13.4.3 Imprinted-Membrane Adsorbents 360

13.4.4 Thin Membrane Adsorbents 362

13.4.5 Modeling Aspects 362

13.4.6 Regeneration and Reuse 365

13.5 Adsorption Post-treatment for Membranes 366

References 367

Index 375