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Lipids: Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Health, 6th Edition




Lipids: Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Health, 6th Edition

Michael I. Gurr, John L. Harwood, Keith N. Frayn, Denis J. Murphy, Robert H. Michell

ISBN: 978-1-118-50113-9 August 2016 Wiley-Blackwell 448 Pages

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For the 6th Edition of this highly regarded textbook devoted to lipids, the title has been modified from Lipid Biochemistry to Lipids to acknowledge the coming together of biological and medical sciences, the increasingly blurred boundaries between them and the growing importance of lipids in diverse aspects of science and technology. The principal aims of this new edition - to inform students and researchers about lipids, to assist teachers and encourage further research – have not changed since previous editions.
Significant advances in lipid science have demanded yet another extensive rewriting for this edition, with the addition of two new authors, to cover new knowledge of genes coding for proteins involved in lipid metabolism, the many lipids involved in cell signalling, the roles of lipids in health and disease and new developments in biotechnology in support of agriculture and industry.

An introductory chapter summarizes the types of lipids covered and their identification and provides a guide to the contents. Chapters contain boxes illustrating special topics, key point summaries and suggested further reading.

Lipids: Sixth Edition provides a huge wealth of information for upper-level students of biological and clinical sciences, food science and nutrition, and for professionals working in academic and industrial research. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological, medical and food and nutritional sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this excellent and comprehensive new edition on their shelves.                         

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Preface, xv

Acknowledgements, xvii

About the authors, xix

About the companion website, xxi

1 Lipids: definitions, naming, methods and a guide to the contents of this book, 1

1.1 Introduction, 1

1.2 Definitions, 1

1.3 Structural chemistry and nomenclature, 1

1.4 Lipidomics, 4

1.5 A guide to the contents of this book, 8

Key points, 11

Further reading, 12

2 Important biological lipids and their structures, 13

2.1 Structure and properties of fatty acids, 13

2.2 Storage lipids – triacylglycerols and wax esters, 20

2.3 Membrane lipids, 26

Key points, 42

Further reading, 42

3 Fatty acid metabolism, 44

3.1 The biosynthesis of fatty acids, 44

3.2 Degradation of fatty acids, 85

3.3 Chemical peroxidation is an important reaction particularly of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 95

3.4 Peroxidation catalysed by lipoxygenase enzymes, 96

3.5 Essential fatty acids and the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, 100

Key points, 120

Further reading, 121

4 The metabolism of complex lipids, 124

4.1 The biosynthesis of triacylglycerols, 124

4.2 The catabolism of acylglycerols, 133

4.3 The integration and control of animal acylglycerol metabolism, 136

4.4 Wax esters, 143

4.5 Phosphoglyceride biosynthesis, 146

4.6 Degradation of phospholipids, 157

4.7 Metabolism of glycosylglycerides, 163

4.8 Metabolism of sphingolipids, 165

4.9 Cholesterol biosynthesis, 173

Key points, 182

Further reading, 183

5 Roles of lipids in cellular structures, 187

5.1 Lipid assemblies, 187

5.2 Role of lipids in cellular evolution, 193

5.3 Membrane structure, 201

5.4 Membrane function, 206

5.5 Intracellular lipid droplets, 215

5.6 Extracellular lipid assemblies, 222

Key points, 226

Further reading, 227

6 Dietary lipids and their biological roles, 229

6.1 Lipids in food, 229

6.2 Roles of dietary lipids, 233

Key points, 251

Further reading, 251

7 Lipid assimilation and transport, 253

7.1 Lipid digestion and absorption, 253

7.2 Transport of lipids in the blood: plasma lipoproteins, 261

7.3 The coordination of lipid metabolism in the body, 275

Key points, 284

Further reading, 285

8 Lipids in transmembrane signalling and cell regulation, 287

8.1 Phosphoinositides have diverse roles in cell signalling and cell compartmentation, 288

8.2 Endocannabinoid signalling, 299

8.3 Lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate in the circulation regulate cell motility and proliferation, 299

8.4 Signalling by phospholipase D, at least partly through phosphatidate, 300

8.5 Ceramide regulates apoptosis and other cell responses, 301

Key points, 302

Further reading, 303

9 The storage of triacylglycerols in animals and plants, 304

9.1 White adipose tissue depots and triacylglycerol storage in animals, 304

9.2 Brown adipose tissue and its role in thermogenesis, 310

9.3 Lipid storage in plants, 313

Key points, 314

Further reading, 315

10 Lipids in health and disease, 317

10.1 Inborn errors of lipid metabolism, 317

10.2 Lipids and cancer, 323

10.3 Lipids and immune function, 328

10.4 Effects of too much or too little adipose tissue: obesity and lipodystrophies, 338

10.5 Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, 349

Key points, 364

Further reading, 365

11 Lipid technology and biotechnology, 367

11.1 Introduction, 367

11.2 Lipid technologies: from surfactants to biofuels, 367

11.3 Lipids in foods, 375

11.4 Modifiying lipids in foods, 379

11.5 Modifying lipids in nonedible products, 383

11.6 Lipids and genetically modified organisms, 385

Key points, 390

Further reading, 390

Index and list of abbreviations, 391