DescriptionLocation-based Services (LBSs) are mobile services for providing information that has been created, compiled, selected or filtered under consideration of the users’ current locations or those of other persons or mobile devices. Typical examples are restaurant finders, buddy trackers, navigation services or applications in the areas of mobile marketing and mobile gaming. The attractiveness of LBSs is due to the fact that users are not required to enter location information manually but are automatically pinpointed and tracked.
This book explains the fundamentals and operation of LBSs and gives a thorough introduction to the key technologies and organizational procedures, offering comprehensive coverage of positioning methods, location protocols and service platforms, alongside an overview of interfaces, languages, APIs and middleware with examples demonstrating their usage.
- Explanation and comparison of all protocols and architectures for location services
- In-depth coverage of satellite, cellular and local positioning
- All embracing introduction to 3GPP positioning methods, such as Cell-Id, E-OTD, U-TdoA, OTDoA-IPDL and Assisted GPS
- Explains the operation of enhanced emergency services such as E-911
- Identifies unsolved research issues and challenges in the area of LBSs
This comprehensive guide will be invaluable to undergraduate and postgraduate students and lecturers in the area of telecommunications. It will also be a useful resource to developers and researchers seeking to expand their knowledge in this field.
List of Abbreviations.
1.1 What are Location-based Services?
1.2 Application Scenarios.
1.3 LBS Actors.
1.5 Structure of this Book.
Part I: Fundamentals.
2 What is Location?
2.1 Location Categories.
2.2 Spatial Location.
3 Spatial Databases and GIS.
3.1 What are Spatial Databases and GIS?
3.2 Geographic versus Spatial Data Models.
3.3 Representing Spatial Objects.
3.4 Features and Themes.
3.5 Algorithms of Computational Geometry.
3.6 Geography Markup Language.
4 Basics of Wireless Communications.
4.2 Propagation of Radio Signals.
4.3 Multiplexing and Multiple Access.
5 Cellular Networks and Location Management.
5.1 Overview of Cellular Systems.
5.2 Principles of Cellular Networks.
5.3 Mobility Management.
5.4 Common Concepts of Location Management.
5.5 Location Management in CS Networks.
5.6 Location Management in PS Networks.
Part II: Positioning.
6 Fundamentals of Positioning.
6.1 Classification of Positioning Infrastructures.
6.2 Basic Positioning Methods.
6.3 Range Measurements.
6.4 Accuracy and Precision.
6.5 Error Sources.
7 Satellite Positioning.
7.1 Historical Background.
7.2 Orbital Motion of Satellite Systems.
7.3 Global Positioning System.
7.4 Differential GPS.
8 Cellular Positioning.
8.1 Positioning in GSM Networks.
8.2 Positioning in UMTS Networks.
8.3 Assisted GPS in GSM and UMTS.
8.4 Positioning in other Cellular Systems.
9 Indoor Positioning.
9.1 WLAN Positioning.
9.2 RFID Positioning.
9.3 Indoor Positioning with GPS.
9.4 Non Radiolocation Systems.
Part III: LBS Operation.
10 Interorganizational LBS Operation.
10.1 LBS Supply Chain.
10.2 Scenarios of the LBS Supply Chain.
10.3 Supplier/Consumer Patterns for Location Dissemination.
10.4 Privacy Protection.
11 Architectures and Protocols for Location Services.
11.1 GSMand UMTS Location Services.
11.2 Enhanced Emergency Services.
11.3 Mobile Location Protocol.
11.4 WAP Location Framework.
12 LBS Middleware.
12.1 Conceptual View of an LBS Middleware.
12.2 Location API for J2ME.
12.3 OpenGIS Location Services.
13 LBS – The Next Generation.