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Neuroimaging in Addiction

Bryon Adinoff (Editor), Elliot A. Stein (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-66014-0 November 2011 372 Pages


Neuroimaging in Addiction presents an up-to-date, comprehensive review of the functional and structural imaging human studies that have greatly advanced our understanding of this complex disorder. Approaching addiction from a conceptual rather than a substance-specific perspective, this book integrates broad neuropsychological constructs that consider addiction as a neuroplastic process with genetic, developmental, and substance-induced contributions.

The internationally recognized contributors to this volume are leaders in clinical imaging with expertise that spans the addiction spectrum.

Following a general introduction, an overview of neural circuitry and modern non-invasive imaging techniques provides the framework for subsequent chapters on reward salience, craving, stress, impulsivity and cognition. Additional topics include the use of neuroimaging for the assessment of acute drug effects, drug-induced neurotoxicity, non-substance addictive behaviors, and the application of imaging genetics to identify unique intermediate phenotypes. The book concludes with an exploration of the future promise for functional imaging as guide to the diagnosis and treatment of addictive disorders.

Scientists and clinicians will find the material in this volume invaluable in their work towards understanding the addicted brain, with the overall goal of improved prevention and treatment outcomes for patients.

Features a Foreword by Edythe London, Director of the Center for Addictive Behaviors, University of California at Los Angeles.

Foreword xi
Edythe D. London

List of Contributors xv

1 Introduction 3
Bryon Adinoff and Elliot A. Stein

References 5

2 An Integrated Framework for Human Neuroimaging Studies of Addiction from a Preclinical Perspective 9
Karen D. Ersche and Trevor W. Robbins

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Drug Addiction Based on Preclinical Observations 9

2.3 Neuropharmacological Considerations 15

2.4 Neuropathology of Chronic Drug Abuse 15

2.5 Impulsivity: An Endophenotype for Drug Addiction 17

2.6 Compulsivity: Craving versus Drug-Seeking 20

2.7 Summary 25

References 26

3 Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Methods:

Applications to Substance Abuse and Addiction 39
Yihong Yang, Svetlana Chefer, Xiujuan Geng, Hong Gu, Xi Chen, and Elliot A. Stein

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 MRI Based Imaging Tools and their Application to Drug Abuse Research 40

3.3 Molecular Imaging with PET and SPECT 59

3.4 Summary and Peek into the Future 69

References 69

4 Functional Neuroimaging of the Acute Effects of Drugs of Abuse 85
Laurence John Reed and David J. Nutt

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Fundamental Neuronal Systems Related to Abuse Liability in Humans 86

4.3 Psychostimulants 87

4.4 Alcohol 92

4.5 Cannabis and the Cannabinoids 95

4.6 Opioids 96

4.7 Conclusions and Future Directions 98

References 99

5 Reward Processing 107
Anne Beck, Anthony A. Grace, and Andreas Heinz

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Neurotransmitter Systems Implicated in Reward Processing 107

5.3 Neurotransmitter Systems Involved in Drug-Related Reward Processing 110

5.4 Alterations in the Mesostriatal System in Addiction 116

5.5 Summary and Outlook 122

5.6 Acknowledgments 123

References 123

6 A Neuroimaging Approach to the Study of Craving 133
Francesca M. Filbey, Eric D. Claus, and Kent. E. Hutchison

6.1 A Neuroimaging Approach to the Study of Craving 133

6.2 Neural Response During Cue-Elicited Craving 134

6.3 Associations between Neural and Subjective Response During Cue-Elicited Craving 141

6.4 Modulators of Neural Response During Cue-Elicited Craving 142

6.5 Effects of Intervention on the Neural Response During Cue-Elicited Craving 147

6.6 Summary and Integration of Findings 149

6.7 Conclusions 151

References 151

7 Impulsivity and Addiction 159
Hugh Garavan

7.1 Introduction 159

7.2 Impulsivity as Reward versus Control 159

7.3 The Neurobiology of Impulsivity 161

7.4 Impulsivity and Risk for Developing a Drug Use Disorder 163

7.5 Impulsivity in Current Users 165

7.6 Impulsivity, Abstinence, and Relapse 168

7.7 Conclusion 170

References 171

8 Cognitive Disruptions in Drug Addiction: a Focus on the Prefrontal Cortex 179
Rita Z. Goldstein, Scott J. Moeller, and Nora D. Volkow

8.1 Introduction 179

8.2 Attention 181

8.3 Working Memory 190

8.4 Decision-Making 193

8.5 Pre-Morbid Vulnerabilities 198

8.6 Other Brain Regions 198

8.7 Limitations Across All Studies 199

8.8 Treatment Implications 200

8.9 General Summary and Conclusions 200

8.10 Acknowledgments 201

References 201

9 Neural Mechanisms of Stress and Addiction 211
Dongju Seo and Rajita Sinha

9.1 Stress and Addiction 211

9.2 Neural Circuits of Stress Regulation 212

9.3 Dysfunction in the Neural Circuits Underlying Stress and Addiction 218

9.4 Interplay of Gene, Stress, and Drug Intake 222

9.5 Acknowledgments 224

References 224

10 Anatomical and Neurochemical Evidence of Neurotoxic Changes in Psychostimulant Abuse and Dependence 237
Young Hoon Sung and Perry F. Renshaw

10.1 Introduction 237

10.2 Characteristics of Psychostimulants 238

10.3 Quantitative MR Morphology Changes Associated with Psychostimulant Dependence 239

10.4 Gross Anatomic Changes in Brain Structures and Subtle Neurotoxicity 240

10.5 Relationship between Errant Neuromodulation by Drug Abuse and Cognitive Abnormalities 241

10.6 Neurochemical Alterations and Psychostimulant Dependence 244

10.7 Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Psychostimulant Dependence 249

10.8 Alcohol and Opiate Addiction 251

10.9 Conclusion 252

References 253

11 Neuroimaging in Behavioral Addictions 263
Bryon Adinoff and Cythnia R. Harrington

11.1 Introduction 263

11.2 Diagnostic Considerations 264

11.3 Mesostriatal Dopamine Pathway 265

11.4 Reward 269

11.5 Craving 273

11.6 Future Directions 277

References 279

12 Imaging Genetics and Addiction 287
Vibhuti Srivastava and David Goldman

12.1 Introduction 287

12.2 Domains of Vulnerability 289

12.3 Cognitive Function 300

12.4 Brain Morphometric Changes 301

12.5 Bridging Gaps 302

12.6 Imaging Pharmacogenetics 304

12.7 Conclusion 306

Glossary 308

References 309

13 The Diagnostic and Therapeutic Potential of Neuroimaging in Addiction Medicine 321
Martina Reske and Martin P. Paulus

13.1 Can fMRI Become the ECG in Addiction Medicine, or What Are the Treatment Implications of Neuroimaging Research in Drug Addiction? 321

13.2 Functional Neuroimaging in Addiction: Relevant Cognitive Constructs to Address during Treatment 322

13.3 Drug Challenge Studies Enhance Knowledge on Pharmacokinetics and Drug-Experience-Relationships 325

13.4 Imaging Symptom Severity 325

13.5 Neuroimaging-Based Monitoring of Treatment Regimes and the Prediction of Treatment Outcomes 326

13.6 Assessing the Relapse Potential Using fMRI 329

13.7 Neurofeedback as a Therapeutic Approach? 334

13.8 Methodological Challenges to Utilize Functional Neuroimaging as a Clinical Test 335

13.9 The Near Future of Brain Imaging in Addiction Medicine 336

References 338

Index 345

“Nevertheless, these minor desires do not detract from the power of this text, which I highly recommended for all preclinical and clinical addiction researchers, addiction psychiatrists, and other mental health and medicine providers interested in obtaining a better understanding of the complexity of addictive disorders via a unique endophenotype-based approach that traverses a broader landscape than a substance-specific presentation.”  (Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1 May 2013)

"Although each chapter stands on its own as an outstanding review of the area of interest, the text still hangs together as a comprehensive well-organized work. In summary, Neuroimaging in Addictions is a timely, well-organized, thorough review of the important progress at the intersection of neuroimaging and addiction research." American Journal of Psychiatry, 2013

"..the book edited by Drs. Adinoff and Stein represents an outstanding collection of contributions from leading investigators in the field, and thus is highly recommended for readers interested in the neurobiologies of addictions." American Journal of Addictions