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Nutraceuticals and Human Blood Platelet Function: Applications in Cardiovascular Health

Nutraceuticals and Human Blood Platelet Function: Applications in Cardiovascular Health

Asim K. Duttaroy

ISBN: 978-1-119-37601-9

May 2018

272 pages

In Stock

£120.00

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Description

A comprehensive review of the impact of dietary nutraceuticals on platelet function and its relationship to cardiovascular disease 

Nutraceuticals and Human Blood Platelet Function offers a summary of the most current evidence on the effects of anti-platelet factors isolated mainly from food and natural sources, their structure function relationship, bioavailability, mechanisms of actions, and also information on human trials data.  The author—a noted expert in the field— explores platelet function and their roles in development of CVD, functional foods and bioactive compounds in CVD risk factors. The author highlights platelets, their mechanisms of actions, data from epidemiological studies, structure-function relationship clinical trial data, ex vivo and in vitro data.

This important resource will focus primarily on human studies and emphasize functional and physiological implications of the nutritional impact on platelet function and CVD that could be an important approach to highlight the concept of preventive CVD nutrition. An authoritative text, Nutraceuticals and Human Blood Platelet Function:

  • Offers a unique resource that connects nutrition with platelet function and its impact on cardiovascular disease
  • Contains an evidenced-based approach, including data from human and animal clinical studies
  • Reveals the impact of bioactive compounds and their effect on platelets
  • Presents a text that is authored by an expert with vast experience in the field of nutrition and platelet function

Written for professionals, academics, researchers, and students associated in the area of nutrition, Nutraceuticals and Human Blood Platelet Function offers a review of the most current research on the effects of platelet function and their roles in development of CVD, functional foods and bioactive compounds in CVD risk factors.

1 Human Blood Platelets and Their Role in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease 1

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Human Blood Platelets: Structure and Function 4

1.3 Platelet Activation Pathways 10

1.4 Platelets and Vessel Wall Interactions 12

1.5 Roles of Platelets in Atherosclerosis and Inflammatory Processes 13

1.6 Platelets and Their Role in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease 17

1.7 Conclusions 22

References 22

2 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease 29

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Dietary Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease 32

2.3 Environmental Factors and Cardiovascular Disease 34

2.4 Genetic Basis of Cardiovascular Disease Incidence 35

2.5 Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction 37

2.6 Conclusions 40

References 40

3 n‐3 Fatty Acids and Human Platelets 47

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 47

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Epidemiology of n‐3 Fatty Acids Intake and Cardiovascular Disease 51

3.3 n‐3 Fatty Acids and Platelet Function 52

3.4 Platelet Function and Eicosanoids 56

3.5 Clinical Trials with n‐3 Fatty Acids 59

3.6 Dietary Recommendation and Sources of n‐3 Fatty Acids 61

3.7 Conclusions 62

References 62

4 Effects of Garlic, Onion, Ginger, and Turmeric on Platelet Function 69

Abbreviations 69

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Effects of Garlic (Allium Sativum) on Platelet Function 71

4.3 Effects of Onion (Allium Cepa L.) on Platelet Function 74

4.4 Effects of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) on Platelet Function 75

4.5 Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) on Platelets 76

4.6 Conclusions 78

References 79

5 Herbs and Platelet Function 83

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 83

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 In Vitro Platelet Aggregation Studies: Effects of Different Herb Extracts 87

5.2.1 Andrographis (Andrographis Paniculata) 89

5.2.2 Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) 90

5.2.3 Feverfew (Tanacetum Parthenium) 90

5.2.4 Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) 91

5.2.5 Hawthorn (Crataegus Oxyacantha) 92

5.2.6 Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum) 92

5.2.7 Motherwort (Leonurus Japonicus) 93

5.2.8 St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) 93

5.2.9 Willow Bark (Salix Alba) 94

5.3 Effects of Herbs on Signaling Molecules in Human Platelets 95

5.4 Conclusions 97

References 98

6 Tomato Extract and Human Platelet Functions 101

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 101

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 Epidemiology of Tomato Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction 104

6.3 In Vitro Studies with Water‐Soluble Tomato Extract on Human Blood Platelet Aggregation 105

6.4 Fruitflow®: Compositional and Structural Aspects 111

6.5 Human Trials 112

6.6 Comparing the Dietary Anti‐Platelet Fruitflow® with the Anti‐Platelet Drug Aspirin 115

6.8 EFSA Approval of Fruitflow® 117

6.8 Conclusions 117

References 118

7 Dietary Nitrates and Their Anti‐Platelet Effects 125

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 125

7.1 Introduction 125

7.2 Nitrate and Cardiovascular Health 129

7.3 Effects of Nitrates on Human Blood Platelet Function In Vitro 131

7.4 Clinical Studies with Dietary Nitrate: Effects on Ex Vivo Platelet Function 133

7.5 Conclusions 134

References 135

8 Kiwifruit and Human Platelet Function 139

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 139

8.1 Introduction 139

8.2 Kiwifruit and Its Bioactive Phytochemicals 140

8.3 Kiwifruits and Human Blood Platelet Function 141

8.4 Human Trials Using Kiwifruit and Kiwifruit Extract 147

8.5 Conclusions 150

References 151

9 Polyphenols and Human Platelets 155

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 155

9.1 Introduction 155

9.2 Polyphenols: Structure and Activity 157

9.3 Sources of Polyphenols 159

9.4 Dietary Intakes and Bioavailability of Polyphenols 160

9.5 Roles of Polyphenols in Platelet Function 161

9.6 Conclusions 167

References 168

10 Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, Green Tea, and Dark Chocolate on Human Blood Platelet Function 171

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 171

10.1 Introduction 171

10.2 Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Platelet Function 172

10.3 Clinical Trial with EGB761 175

10.4 Ginseng and Platelet Function 177

10.5 Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) and its Effects on Platelet Function 181

10.6 Dark Chocolate and Platelet Function 183

10.7 Conclusions 185

References 187

11 Plant Alkaloids and Platelet Function 191

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 191

11.1 Introduction 191

11.2 Alkaloids as Anti‐Platelet Agents 193

11.3 Mechanism of Actions of Alkaloids 197

11.4 Conclusions 198

References 199

12 Strawberries and Human Platelet Function 203

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 203

12.1 Introduction 203

12.2 Polyphenols in Strawberries 204

12.3 Strawberry and its Cardio‐Protective Effects 206

12.4 Anti‐Platelet Factors in Strawberry 207

12.5 Discussion 209

References 211

13 Effects of Metal Ions on Platelet Function 215

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 215

13.1 Introduction 215

13.2 Zinc and Human Blood Platelet Function 216

13.3 Calcium and its Regulation of Platelet Function 218

13.4 Chromium and Platelet Function 221

13.5 Iron (Fe) and Platelet Function 221

13.6 Magnesium and Platelet Function 222

13.7 Platelet Function and Selenium 223

13.8 Conclusions 225

References 226

14 Individual Compounds with Anti‐Platelet Activity

Isolated from Plant Sources 231

Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 231

14.1 Introduction 231

14.2 Effects of Taurine and Glycine on Human Platelets 233

14.3 Anthocyanins and Human Platelets 234

14.4 Coumarins and Their Anti‐Platelet Effects 235

14.5 Atractylenolides and Their Anti‐Platelet Effects 236

14.6 Flavonolignans and Blood Platelet Function 238

14.7 Protocatechuic Acid on Human Platelet Aggregation 238

14.8 KOK and Platelet Function 240

14.9 Inhibitors of Platelet Granules Secretion 241

14.10 Hydroxychavicol and Platelet Function 243

14.11 Compounds Isolated from Guttiferae Species with Anti‐Platelet Activity 243

14.12 Conclusions 244

References 244

Index 247