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Phytopharmacy: An Evidence-Based Guide to Herbal Medicinal Products




Phytopharmacy: An Evidence-Based Guide to Herbal Medicinal Products

Sarah E. Edwards, Ines da Costa Rocha, Elizabeth M. Williamson, Michael Heinrich

ISBN: 978-1-118-54356-6 April 2015 Wiley-Blackwell 414 Pages

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Healthcare professionals, including doctors, pharmacists and nurses, are often confronted with patients who use over-the-counter (OTC) herbal medicinal products and food supplements. While taking responsibility for one’s own health and treatment options is encouraged, many patients use these products based on limited (and sometimes inaccurate) information from non-scientific sources, such as the popular press and internet. There is a clear need to offer balanced, well-informed advice to patients, yet a number of studies have shown that, generally, conventionally trained health practitioners consider their knowledge about herbal medicinal products and supplements to be weak.

Phytopharmacy fills this knowledge gap, and is intended for use by the busy pharmacist, nurse, or doctor, as well as the ‘expert patient’ and students of pharmacy and herbal medicine. It presents clear, practical and concise monographs on over a hundred popular herbal medicines and plant-based food supplements. Information provided in each monograph includes:

• Indications
• Summary and appraisal of clinical and pre-clinical evidence
• Potential interactions
• Contraindications
• Possible adverse effects

An overview of the current regulatory framework is also outlined, notably the EU Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive. This stipulates that only licensed products or registered traditional herbal medicinal products (THRs), which have assured quality and safety, can now legally be sold OTC. Monographs are included of most of the major herbal ingredients found in THRs, and also some plant-based
food supplements, which while not strictly medicines, may also have the potential to exert a physiological effect.

Preface ix

Introduction 1

The Evidence Base for Herbal Medicines 9

How to use 18

Açaí 21

Aloe Vera (Gel) 24

Arnica 27

Artichoke 29

Ashwagandha 32

Asparagus 36

Astragalus 39

Baobab 42

Bearberry 45

Bilberry; Blueberry 47

Birch, Silver and Downy 50

Bitter Gourd 54

Black Cohosh 57

Bladderwrack; Kelp 62

Boldo 67

Brahmi 69

Burdock 72

Butcher’s Broom 75

Butterbur 78

Calendula 81

Cannabis 84

Centaury 88

Centella 91

Chamomile, German 94

Chamomile, Roman 97

Chasteberry 99

Chilli/Capsicum 103

Cinnamon; Chinese Cinnamon/Cassia 106

Cola 111

Comfrey 114

Cramp Bark 118

Cranberry 120

Damiana 123

Dandelion 127

Devil’s Claw 131

Echinacea 134

Elderberry, Elderflower 138

Eucalyptus 141

Evening Primrose (Oil) 144

Fennel 149

Feverfew 152

Ganoderma 155

Garlic 158

Gentian 161

Ginger 164

Ginkgo 168

Ginseng 173

Ginseng, Siberian 177

Goldenrod 180

Goldenseal 182

Grapeseed 186

Graviola 189

Green Tea 191

Hawthorn 195

Holy Basil 198

Hoodia 202

Hops 206

Horny Goat Weed 210

Horse Chestnut 214

Horsetail 216

Ipecacuanha 219

Ispaghula Husk, Psyllium Husk 222

Ivy 227

Kalmegh 230

Lapacho 234

Lavender 237

Lemon balm 242

Linseed (Flaxseed) 246

Liquorice 251

Lobelia 255

Maca 257

Mallow 259

Maritime Pine (Bark) 261

Milk Thistle 264

Neem 268

Nettle 271

Noni 276

Norway spruce 280

Oats 283

Passionflower 287

Pelargonium 291

Peony 294

Peppermint 298

Prickly Pear 302

Pumpkin (Seed) 305

Raspberry Leaf 308

Red Clover 311

Red Vine Leaf 314

Rhodiola 317

Ribwort Plantain 320

Rosehip 322

Roselle 325

Rosemary 328

Sage 332

St. John’s Wort 335

Saw Palmetto 340

Schisandra 343

Sea Buckthorn 347

Senna 350

Shatavari 354

Skullcap 357

Slippery Elm 360

Spirulina 363

Squill 366

Tea Tree (Oil) 368

Thyme 371

Tongkat Ali 375

Turmeric 379

Valerian 383

Verbena 386

Wild Indigo 389

Wild Lettuce 391

Willow (Bark) 393

Witch Hazel 396

Yohimbe 401

“Without doubt, a copy of this book should be in every GP surgery and pharmacy.”  (Chemistry & Industry, 17 November 2015)