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Place-making and Policies for Competitive Cities




Place-making and Policies for Competitive Cities

Sako Musterd (Editor), Zoltán Kovács (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-67503-8 April 2013 Wiley-Blackwell 358 Pages

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Urban policy makers are increasingly striving to strengthen the economic competitiveness of their cities. Currently, they do that mainly in the field of the creative knowledge economy - arts, media, entertainment, creative business services, architecture, publishing, design; and ICT, R&D, finance, and law. This book is about the policies that help to realise such objectives: policies driven by classic location theory, cluster policies, ‘creative class’ policies aimed at attracting talent, as well as policies that connect to pathways, place and personal networks.

The experiences and policy strategies of 13 city-regions across Europe have been investigated: Amsterdam, Barcelona, Birmingham, Budapest, Dublin, Helsinki, Leipzig, Milan, Munich, Poznan, Riga, Sofia and Toulouse. All have different histories and roles: capital cities and secondary cities; cities with different economies and industries; port-based cities and land-locked cities. And all 13 have different cultural, political and welfare state traditions. Through this wide set of contexts, Place-making and Policies for Competitive Citiescontributes to the debate about the development of creative knowledge cities, their economic growth and competitiveness and advocates the development of context-sensitive tailored approaches. Chapter authors from the 13 European cities rigorously evaluate, reformulate and test assumptions behind old and new policies.

This solidly-grounded and policy-focused study on the urban policy of place-making highlights practices for different contexts in managing knowledge-intensive cities and, by drawing on the varied experiences from across Europe, it establishes the state-of-the-art for both academic and policy debates in a fast-moving field.

Contributors xi

Foreword by Professor Allen J. Scott, University of California – Los Angeles xv

Preface xvii


1 Policies and Place-making for Competitive Cities 3
Sako Musterd and Zoltán Kovács

Policy progress 3

Economic sectors 7

Questions and approaches 8

References 10

2 Prevailing Policies versus New Tailored Policies 11
Sako Musterd and Zoltán Kovács

Introduction 11

Infrastructure, communication, tax and cluster policies 14

Creative class debates and policy hypes related to

technology, tolerance and talent (3Ts) 16

New tailored policies linked to pathways, place and personal networks (3Ps) 18

Three parts 19

References 22


3 Policies Built upon Pathways 27
Sako Musterd and Zoltán Kovács

Pathways and urban development 27

Capitalising on layers of development 30

Power centres with sustained positions 31

Post-socialist policies and the struggle with the past 32

References 33

4 Policies towards Multi-Layered Cities and Cluster Development 35
Tamás Egedy, Anne von Streit and Marco Bontje

Introduction 35

Multi-layered cities 37

Path dependence of cluster development and the role of policies 39

Multi-layered cities in Western Europe and in Eastern and Central Europe 43

Conclusions 54

References 55

5 Capitalising on Position: Policies for Competitive Capital and non-Capital Cities 59
Julie Brown, Declan Redmond and Marc Pradel i Miquel

Introduction 60

The function of capital versus non-capital cities 61

Selected capital and non-capital cities in the ACRE study 63

Capital cities: development pathways and policies 64

Development pathways of non-capital cities 67

Policies for competitive non-capital cities 69

Conclusions 72

References 74

6 Addressing the Legacy of Post-Socialist Cities in East Central Europe 77
Tadeusz Stryjakiewicz, Olga Gritsai, Evgenii Dainov and Tamás Egedy

Introduction 78

Key features of post-socialist cities affecting urban policies 79

The role and structure of the creative and knowledge-intensive sectors 81

Challenges and policy responses 84

Policy recommendations 90

Concluding remarks 92

References 93


7 The Importance of Places and Place Branding 97
Zoltán Kovács and Sako Musterd

Introduction 97

Sense of place and placelessness 98

Place-making, place marketing and place branding 100

Shifting focus of place-making in competitive cities 101

References 103

8 Policies towards Place Attraction and Policies for Place Retention 105
Philip Lawton, Micha³ Mêczyñski and Austin Barber

Introduction: place-making and the creative knowledge economy 106

The evolution of ‘place-making’ 107

Developing policies oriented towards the retention of creative and knowledge workers 114

Policy reorientation: a focus on place retention 115

Conclusion: place-making policy formation 122

References 123

9 Urban Regeneration and Housing as Potential Tools for Enhancing the Creative Economy 127
Tamás Egedy, Declan Redmond and Kornelia Ehrlich

Introduction 128

Links between urban regeneration and the creative economy 129

Housing for everyone and housing for creative people 132

How can regeneration and housing support the creative economy? 135

Conclusions 144

References 145

10 Successes and Failures in City Branding Policies 149
Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway, Caroline Chapain and Silvia Mugnano

Introduction 149

Theories on place branding: the role played by cultural and creative industries 152

Some empirical evidence 154

Conclusions: evaluating city branding processes 166

Acknowledgements 169

References 169

11 Policies for Small and Large Cities 173
Marc Pradel i Miquel, Anders Paalzow and Hélène Martin-Brelot

Introduction 173

City size and the creative knowledge economy 174

Does size influence the decisions of skilled employees in the creative and knowledge economy? 178

City size, governance and policy-making 183

Conclusion: different dimensions, different challenges 186

References 189

12 Creative Knowledge Strategies for Polycentric City-Regions 191
Marco Bontje and Kaisa Kepsu

Introduction 191

The city-region concept 193

From mono- to polycentric city-regions 195

Geographies of creative knowledge companies 197

Geographies of creative knowledge workers 200

Towards competitive creative knowledge regions? Examples of city-regional collaboration 202

Conclusions and policy implications: the added value of city-regional collaboration 205

References 206


13 Personal Networks 211
Zoltán Kovács and Sako Musterd

The personal touch 211

From networks of firms to networks of people: the role of personal networks in the creative knowledge economy 212

Possible policy interventions focusing on personal networks 215

References 218

14 Networks and Mobility: the Policy Context 219
Olga Gritsai, Michel Grossetti and Denis Eckert

Introduction 219

The importance of personal trajectories and personal networks 222

Cultural and institutional constraints on mobility 227

Challenges for policy-makers 229

Conclusions 235

References 236

15 Internationalisation and Policies towards Transnational Migration 239
Heike Pethe and Sabine Hafner

Transnational migration of the highly skilled 239

Transnational migration of highly skilled professionals 241

Identifying and monitoring target groups for effective policies 243

Developing effective measures for highly skilled migrants – good practices 255

Conclusions 258

References 259

16 Policies Aimed at Strengthening Ties between Universities and Cities 263
Krzysztof Stachowiak, Rómulo Pinheiro, Carla Sedini and Mari Vaattovaara

Introduction 263

The changing nature of university–city relations 265

From university in, to the university of or for, the city: tensions and dilemmas in university–city relations 266

The university as an enabler of the creative economy 274

Case studies 277

Challenges and bottlenecks surrounding university–city relations 282

Conclusions 284

Acknowledgements 286

References 286

17 Governance of Creative Industries: the Role of Social and Professional Networks 293
Anne von Streit and Bastian Lange

Introduction 293

The creative industries: definitions and characteristics 295

Important strands of policies 297

Governance of the creative industries 299

Networks in the creative industries: theoretical approaches and empirical findings 302

Examples of promoting networks in the creative industries 304

Conclusions and suggestions 308

References 309


18 Tailored – Context-Sensitive – Urban Policies for Creative Knowledge Cities 315
Sako Musterd and Zoltán Kovács

Three building blocks for new urban economic policies 315

New urban policies put in context: ‘PPP-CC-T’ 318

Building on the past? 319

Tailored policies to create smart places 321

Policies building on personal networks 323

Conclusions 325

References 326

Index 329