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Politics of European Integration: Political Union or a House Divided?




Politics of European Integration: Political Union or a House Divided?

Andrew Glencross

ISBN: 978-1-405-19394-8 January 2014 Wiley-Blackwell 344 Pages

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This is a systematic, up-to-date exploration of the politics of European integration that includes balanced coverage of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Union. 

  • Examines European integration as a contested political process that continues to divide and inspire nations, citizens, and politicians
  • Provides students with the analytical tools to consider why the EU functions as it currently does, whether the EU is sufficiently democratic, the politics behind EU legislation, debates over foreign policy, proposals for institutional reform, and the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis
  • Brings together the latest scholarly research from comparative politics, international relations, law, and democratic theory
  • Accompanied by a range of student resources including chapter-level flashcards and independent study questions – available at

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List of Figures xi

List of Tables xiii

List of Timelines xv

List of Boxes xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Introduction 1


1 The Idea of Europe: Foundations and Justifications for Unity 13

1.0 Introduction: What and Where Is Europe? 14

1.1 The Historical Background to Th inking about European Unity 16

1.2 Early Ideas and Pioneers of Unity 18

1.3 The Peace or Civilizing Justification for Unity 22

1.4 The Prosperity Justification for Unity 24

1.5 The Strengthening State Capacity Justification for Unity 26

1.6 Concluding Summary 28

2 The Institutional Development of European Integration, 1945–1973 33

2.0 Introduction: Uniting for Peace 34

2.1 The Struggle to Resolve Post-War Security and Economic Issues, 1945–1951 36

2.2 The Creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 38

2.3 The Functioning of the ECSC and the Attempt at Full Military and Political Union, 1951–1957 42

2.4 The Continuing Pursuit of Economic Integration: Creating the EEC, 1957 45

2.5 Overcoming the First Tests: The Common Agricultural Policy and the Empty Chair Crisis, 1957–1973 47

2.6 Concluding Summary 51

3 The Institutional Development of European Integration, 1973–2010 57

3.0 Introduction: The Widening and Deepening of European Integration 58

3.1 Living with the First Enlargement Round and Preparing for the Next, 1973–1986 60

3.2 Completing the Single Market as a Prelude to Monetary and Political Union, 1986–1992 65

3.3 Designing European Unity for the Post-Cold War Era, 1992–2004 68

3.4 From Constitutional Failure to the Lisbon Treaty, 2004–2010 73

3.5 Concluding Summary 77


4 The EU’s Institutional Dynamics 85

4.0 Introduction: The Functioning of the EU 86

4.1 An Overview of the Dynamics of EU Policy-Making 87

4.2 The Ordinary Legislative Procedure (OLP) 89

4.3 The Role of Interest Groups and Experts 95

4.4 The Commission’s Watchdog Role and the Importance of the CJEU 99

4.5 Special Provisions for Foreign Policy 104

4.6 Concluding Summary 106

5 EU Policy-Making in Action: Major EU Policies 111

5.0 Introduction: The EU’s Major Policy Areas 112

5.1 The EU Budget 113

5.2 The Euro 115

5.3 The Single Market 118

5.4 Social and Environmental Policy 122

5.5 Justice and Citizenship 125

5.6 Enlargement 128

5.7 Concluding Summary 131

6 The EU in Comparative Perspective 137

6.0 Introduction: Why Compare? 138

6.1 The EU Compared with Federal States 139

6.2 The EU Compared with International Organizations 143

6.3 The sui generis Interpretation 148

6.4 Concluding Summary 153


7 EU Internal Policies: The Theory, Practice, and Politics of Regulation 161

7.0 Introduction: Regulatory Outputs and EU Politics 162

7.1 Regulatory Theory and European Integration 163

7.2 EU Regulation in Practice 167

7.3 Not Just a Regulatory State: The Politics of EU Regulatory Outputs 171

7.4 Theorizing EU Regulation and Explaining Its Eff ects 177

7.5 Concluding Summary 180

8 The Institutionalization of EU Foreign Policy and Debates over the EU’s International Role 185

8.0 Introduction: What Is at Stake in Understanding EU Foreign Relations? 186

8.1 The Institutions and Institutionalization of EU Foreign Policy 187

8.2 The Debate over EU Foreign Policy Eff ectiveness 192

8.3 The Ideological Debate over the Aims of EU Foreign Policy 197

8.4 The Explanatory Debate over EU Foreign Policy 201

8.5 Concluding Summary 205

9 What Model for Uniting Europe? 211

9.0 Introduction: Competing Models of European Integration 212

9.1 Federalism 213

9.2 Confederalism 216

9.3 The Networked Governance Model 220

9.4 The Diff erentiated Integration Model 224

9.5 Concluding Summary 228


10 Democracy in the European Union 235

10.0 Introduction: More Integration, More Democracy? 236

10.1 Democratic Accountability in the EU: Beyond Majoritarianism 237

10.2 The Democratic Deficit Debate 241

10.3 Enhancing Democracy in the EU 249

10.4 Concluding Summary 255

11 The Impact of European Integration on National Politics 261

11.0 Introduction: Political Adaptation to European Integration 262

11.1 European Integration and National Politics: The End of the Permissive Consensus 263

11.2 Euroskepticism and Its Varieties 267

11.3 National Referendums on EU Issues 273

11.4 Concluding Summary 278

12 Integration and Democracy in the Shadow of the Eurozone Debt Crisis 285

12.0 Introduction: The Eurozone Crisis as a Challenge to Democracy and Integration 286

12.1 The Causes of the Eurozone Crisis 288

12.2 The Travails of Formulating an EU Response 292

12.3 Criticism and Controversies Surrounding the EU Response 297

12.4 Conclusion: What the Crisis Means for the Future of Integration 305

Index 311

“All in all, the book provides a broad overview of European integration and strives to fill the gaps left by existing textbooks.”  (JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 17 December 2014)