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Principles of Health Care Ethics, 2nd Edition



Edited by four leading members of the new generation of medical and healthcare ethicists working in the UK, respected worldwide for their work in medical ethics, Principles of Health Care Ethics, Second Edition is a standard resource for students, professionals, and academics wishing to understand current and future issues in healthcare ethics.

With a distinguished international panel of contributors working at the leading edge of academia, this volume presents a comprehensive guide to the field, with state of the art introductions to the wide range of topics in modern healthcare ethics, from consent to human rights, from utilitarianism to feminism, from the doctor-patient relationship to xenotransplantation.

This volume is the Second Edition of the highly successful work edited by Professor Raanan Gillon, Emeritus Professor of Medical Ethics at Imperial College London and former editor of the Journal of Medical Ethics, the leading journal in this field.

Developments from the First Edition include:  The focus on ‘Four Principles Method’ is relaxed to cover more different methods in health care ethics. More material on new medical technologies is included, the coverage of issues on the doctor/patient relationship is expanded, and material on ethics and public health is brought together into a new section.

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List of Contributors xi

Foreword: Raanan E. Gillon xix

Foreword: Tony Hope xxi

Preface xxiii

Introduction by John R. McMillan 1

1 The 'Four Principles' Approach to Health Care Ethics 3
Tom L. Beauchamp

2 Theories of Autonomy 11
Natalie Stoljar

3 Benefi cence 19
Garrett Cullity

4 Responsibilities for Poverty-Related Ill Health 27
Thomas Pogge

5 Liberalism and Communitarianism 35
Colin Tyler

6 How Many Principles for Bioethics? 43
Robert M. Veatch

7 Casuistical Reasoning in Medical Ethics 51
Albert R. Jonsen

8 Utilitarianism and Bioethics 57
Matti Häyry

9 Deontology 65
David A. McNaughton and J. Piers Rawling

10 Kantian Ethics 73
Onora O'Neill

11 Feminist Approaches to Health Care Ethics 79
Susan Sherwin

12 Virtue Theory 87
Justin Oakley

13 Moral Relativism 93
Mark Sheehan

14 Christian Approaches to Bioethics 99
Heather Widdows

15 Judaism and Medicine: Jewish Medical Ethics 109
Fred Rosner

16 The Search for Islamic Bioethics Principles 117
Abdulaziz Sachedina

17 Buddhist Bioethics 127
James Hughes

18 South Asian Approaches to Health Care Ethics 135
Harold Coward

19 The Specious Idea of an Asian Bioethics: Beyond Dichotomizing East and West 143
Jing-Bao Nie

20 Narrative Ethics 151
Howard Brody

21 Empirical Approaches to Health Care Ethics 159
Jeremy Sugarman, Robert A. Pearlman, Holly A. Taylor

22 Medical Sociology and the Redundancy of Empirical Ethics 167
Adam Hedgecoe

23 The Use of Thought Experiments in Health Care Ethics 177
Adrian Walsh

24 Deliberative Bioethics 185
Michael Parker

25 Law, Ethics and Health Care 193
Sheila A.M. McLean

26 Medical Humanities: An Overview 199
Martyn Evans

27 Reflective Equilibrium as a Method in Health Care Ethics 207
Theo van Willigenburg

28 Hermeneutic Ethics between Practice and Theory 215
Guy A.M. Widdershoven, Tineke A. Abma

29 Paternalism in Health Care and Health Policy 223
James F. Childress

30 Need: An Instrumental View 231
Anthony J. Culyer

31 Rights 239
James G.S. Wilson

32 Exploitation in Health Care 247
Alan Wertheimer

33 Competence to Consent 255
Monique F. Jonas

34 The Doctrine of Double Effect 263
Suzanne Uniacke

35 Ordinary and Extraordinary Means 269
Stephen D. John

36 Acts and Omissions 273
Tuija Takala

37 Personhood and Moral Status 277
Ainsley J. Newson

38 Commodifi cation 285
Stephen Wilkinson

Introduction by Heather Draper 293

39 Consent and Informed Consent 297
Neil C. Manson

40 Treatment Decisions for Incapacitated Patients 305
Rebecca S. Dresser

41 Children's Consent to Medical Treatment 311
David W. Archard

42 Patients and Disclosure of Surgical Risk 319
Justin Oakley

43 Confi dentiality 325
Rebecca Bennett

44 Truth Telling, Lying and the Doctor-Patient Relationship 333
Roger Higgs

45 Personal Beliefs and Patient Care 339
Jennifer Jackson

46 Conscience and Health Care Ethics 345
Piers Benn

47 Care in Families 351
Hilde Lindemann

48 The Ethics of Primary Health Care 357
Annettee J. Braunack-Mayer

49 The Nurse-Patient Relationship: A 'Principles plus Care' Account 365
Steven D. Edwards

50 Dual Responsibilities: Do They Raise Any Different Ethical Issues from 'Normal' Therapeutic Relationships? 371
Ann Sommerville and Veronica English

51 Violent and Abusive Patients: An Ethically Informed Response 379
G.M. Behr, J.S. Emmanuel, J.P. Ruddock

52 The Moral Signifi cance of the Human Foetus 387
Norman Ford

53 Will We Need Abortion in Utopia? 393
Adrienne Asch

54 Maternal-Foetal Confl ict 401
Rosamund Scott

55 Limits to Reproductive Liberty 409
Thomas H. Murray

56 Disability without Denial 415
Tom Sorell

57 Disability and Equity: Should Difference Be Welcomed? 421
Tom Shakespeare

58 Genetic Counselling 427
Angus Clarke

59 Ethics and Psychotherapy: An Issue of Trust 435
Tim Bond

60 Mental Illness and Compulsory Treatment 443
John R. McMillan

61 Personality Disorders and Compulsory Detention 449
Matt Matravers

62 Labia mea, Domine: Media, Morality and Eating Disorders 455
Simona Giordano

63 Intellectual Disability 463
Pekka Louhiala

64 Ethical Issues and Health Care for Older People 469
Julian C. Hughes

65 Organs and Tissues for Transplantation and Research 475
David P.T. Price

66 Living Donor Organ Transplantation 483
Timothy M. Wilkinson

67 Euthanasia and Principled Health Care Ethics: From Confl ict to Compromise? 489
Richard Huxtable

68 Understanding and Misunderstanding Death 497
David Lamb

69 Ethics without Boundaries: Medical Tourism 505
Guido Pennings

70 Ethics of Performance Enhancement in Sport: Drugs and Gene Doping 511
Bennett Foddy, Julian Savulescu

71 Training Good Professionals: Ethics and Health Care Education 521
Nafsika Athanassoulis

72 Ethics Consultation and Ethics Committees 527
Anne Slowther

Introduction by Angus Dawson 535

73 The Concepts of Health and Illness 537
Lennart Y. Nordenfelt

74 Community in Public Health Ethics 543
Bruce Jennings

75 Health Promotion, Society and Health Care Ethics 549
Alan Cribb

76 Preventing Disease 557
Marcel Verweij

77 Quantitative Methods for Priority-Setting in Health: Ethical Issues 563
Daniel Wikler, Dan W. Brock, Sarah Marchand, and Tessa Tan Torres

78 Economics, Political Philosophy and Ethics: The Role of Public Preferences in Health Care Decision-Making 569
Jeff Richardson, John McKie

79 Decision Analysis: The Ethical Approach to Most Health Decision Making 577
Jack Dowie

80 Health Inequities and the Social Determinants of Health 585
Wendy Rogers

81 Organizational Ethics in Health Care 593
Jacob E. Kurlander, Marion Danis

82 Ethical Issues in Epidemiology 601
Steven S. Coughlin

83 Screening: Ethical Aspects 607
Niklas Juth, Christian Munthe

84 Vaccination Ethics 617
Angus Dawson

85 The Patient as Victim and Vector: Bioethics and the Challenge of Infectious Diseases 623
Margaret P. Battin, Linda S. Carr-Lee, Leslie P. Francis, Jay A. Jacobson, Charles B. Smith

86 Bioterrorism, Society and Health Care Ethics 631
Michael J. Selgelid

87 Drug Addiction, Society and Ethics 639
Wayne Hall, Adrian Carter

88 Smoking: Is Acceptance of the Risks Fully Voluntary? 647
Robert E. Goodin

89 Doctors and Human Rights 655
Doris Schroeder

90 Duties to Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Host Countries' Medical Systems 663
Pascale Allotey, Hilary Pickles, Vanessa Johnston

91 Medical Aid in Disaster Relief 671
Soren Holm

Introduction by Richard E. Ashcroft 679

92 The Ethics and Governance of Medical Research 681
Richard E. Ashcroft

93 On The Ethics of Animal Research 689
David DeGrazia

94 The Ethical Requirement for Systematic Reviews for Randomized Trials 697
Mike Clarke

95 Informed Consent for Research 703
James Flory, David Wendler and Ezekiel Emanuel

96 Evaluating Benefi ts and Harms in Clinical Research 711
Paul B. Miller and Charles Weijer

97 Patients' Obligations? 719
Simon Woods

98 Standard of Care Owed to Participants in Clinical Trials: Different Standards in Different Countries? 729
Reidar K. Lie

99 Justice and Priority Setting in International Health Care Research 735
Solomon R. Benatar

100 Obligations of the Pharmaceutical Industry 743
Udo Schuklenk and Jim Gallagher

101 Ethics and Medical Publishing 751
Richard Smith and Iain Chalmers

102 Human Reproductive Cloning 759
D. Gareth Jones and Kerry A. Galvin

103 Obtaining Human Eggs for Stem Cell Research: Ethical Issues 767
Heather Draper

104 The Ethics of Xenotransplantation 775
Jonathan Hughes

105 Pharmacogenomics 783
Ruth Chadwick

106 Ethical Issues in Human Gene Transfer: A Historical Overview 789
Eric T. Juengst and Hannah Grankvist

107 The Ethics of Ageing, Immortality and Genetics 797
Daniela Cutas and John Harris

108 Ethical Issues of Enhancement Technologies 803
Ruud H.J. Ter Meulen, Lisbeth Nielsen, Laurens Landeweerd

109 Psychosurgery and Neuroimplantation: Changing What is Deep Within a Person 811
Grant Gillett

110 Resisting Addiction: Novel Application of Vaccines 819
Andreas Hasman

Index 827

"It is probably now the single most comprehensive bioethics textbook available … This is a very fine book indeed." (BMA Medical Book Competition - Programme and Award Winners, September 2008)

“Serve[s] as a reference text of concise reviews and as a medical ethics sampler. Such approachable original essays by authors who are experts in their respective fields will serve as excellent teaching tools, and I anticipate referring house staff, nurses, and therapists to them … .Serve[s] as a source of intriguing insights on topics not commonly on the clinical ethics table. It offers clinicians and medical practitioners a starting place to understand key concepts and problems in medical ethics. As such, it is a valuable reference text.” (Respiratory Care, April 2008)

"This is a well though out book covering a wide variety of ethical problems in healthcare. It provides those interested in healthcare ethics a great resource for starting their inquiry and would be a valuable inquisition." (Doody's, November 2007)