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Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security

Lars T. Berger, Krzysztof Iniewski

ISBN: 978-1-118-00439-5 April 2012 488 Pages

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For many, smart grids are the biggest technological revolution since the Internet. They have the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, increase the reliability of electricity supply, and increase the efficiency of our energy infrastructure.

Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security explains how diverse technologies play hand-in-hand in building and maintaining smart grids around the globe. The book delves into the communication aspects of smart grids, provides incredible insight into power electronics, sensing, monitoring, and control technologies, and points out the potential for new technologies and markets.

Extensively cross-referenced, the book contains comprehensive coverage in four major parts:

  • Part I: Applications provides a detailed introduction to smart grid applications—spanning the transmission, distribution, and consumer side of the electricity grid
  • Part II: Communications discusses wireless, wireline, and optical communication solutions—from the physical layers up to sensing, automation, and control protocols running on the application layers
  • Part III: Security deals with cyber security—sharpening the awareness of security threats, reviewing the ongoing standardization, and outlining the future of authentication and encryption key management
  • Part IV: Case Studies and Field Trials presents self-contained chapters of studies where the smart grid of tomorrow has already been put into practice With contributions from major industry stakeholders such as Siemens, Cisco, ABB, and Motorola, this is the ideal book for both engineering professionals and students.

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Preface xv

Contributors xvii

Part I Applications

1 Introduction to Smart Grid Applications 3
Xiaoming Feng, James Stoupis, Salman Mohagheghi, and Mats Larsson

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Voltage and Var Control and Optimization 5

1.2.1 Introduction 5

1.2.2 Devices for Voltage and Var Control 6

1.2.3 Voltage Drop and Energy Loss in Distribution System 7

1.2.4 Load Response to Voltage Variations 8

1.2.5 Benefit Potentials of Voltage and Var Control 9

1.2.6 Voltage and Var Control Approaches 10

1.2.7 Communication Requirements 12

1.2.8 Inclusion of New Controllable Resources 13

1.2.9 Interaction with Other Applications 14

1.3 Fault Detection, Isolation, and Restoration (FDIR) 14

1.3.1 Drivers and Benefits of FDIR 15

1.3.2 FDIR Background 15

1.3.3 Field-Based FDIR Schemes 16

1.3.4 Control Center-Based FDIR Schemes 19

1.3.5 Reliability: Present and Future 20

1.4 Demand Response (DR) 21

1.4.1 Types of DR Programs 22

1.4.2 Communication Requirements 24

1.4.3 Statistical Reliability of Demand Response 24

1.5 Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) 25

1.5.1 Operation and Control 26

1.5.2 Communication Requirements 28

1.5.3 Sustainable Power Grid 28

1.6 Wide-Area Monitoring, Control, and Protection (WAMCP) 28

1.6.1 Structure of a Wide-Area Monitoring, Control, and Protection System 29

1.6.2 Overview of WAMCP Applications 34

1.6.3 Stabilizing and Emergency Control Actions 37

1.6.4 Implementation Aspects of WAMCP Systems 39

References 44

2 Electric Vehicles as a Driver for Smart Grids 49
Nigel Fitzpatrick and Alec Tsang

2.1 Introduction 49

2.2 Plug-In Electric Vehicles and Hybrids 50

2.3 Hybrids 51

2.4 The General Electric Delta Car 52

2.5 Batteries, Ultracapacitors, and Semi and Full-Fuel Cells 53

2.6 Lithium Ion 56

2.7 Cell Voltage, Reliability of Stacks, and Impact of Inverters 57

2.8 Battery Mass Fraction, Energy, Power, Benefits and a Penalty 58

2.9 Vehicle Classes, Niches, and Constraints 59

2.10 Messages from Full-Cycle Modeling, Energy Security, and Air Quality 60

2.11 Market Penetration by Vehicle Niche 60

2.12 Vehicle Architecture, Key Components, Controls, and Cost 61

2.13 Grid to Vehicle (G2V) Charging: Levels 1 to 3 62

2.13.1 Level 1: 125 Volt AC 63

2.13.2 Level 2: Greater than 125 Volt AC or Greater than 20 amps 63

2.13.3 Level 3: Charging 64

2.14 Grid Impacts 64

2.15 Vehicle to Grid (V2G): A First or Second Order Matter? 66

2.16 Second Life for Used Vehicle Batteries Grid-Side Instead? 68

2.17 The City and the Vehicle 69

2.18 Impact of Electric Drive on Greenhouse Gas Emissions 69

2.19 Conclusions 70

Acknowledgments 71

References 71

3 Autonomous Demand-Side Management 75
Hamed Mohsenian-Rad and Alberto Leon-Garcia

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Direct and Indirect Demand-Side Management 77

3.3 Autonomous Demand-Side Management 79

3.4 Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling 82

3.5 Price Prediction 88

3.6 Managing User-Side Storage and Generation 91

3.7 Conclusion 92

References 92

4 Power Electronics for Monitoring, Signaling, and Protection 97
Wilsun Xu

4.1 Introduction 97

4.2 Power Line Communication 98

4.2.1 Zero-Crossing Shift Technique 98

4.2.2 Waveform Distortion Technique 99

4.2.3 Ripple Signaling Technique 101

4.2.4 Summary 102

4.3 Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection 102

4.3.1 Online Motor Thermal Protection 103

4.3.2 Faulted Line Identification in Ungrounded Systems 104

4.3.3 Generator Ground Fault Detection 105

4.3.4 HVDC Neutral Ground Fault Detection 107

4.3.5 Detections of Faults in a De-energized Line 107

4.3.6 Summary 108

4.4 Active Protection 109

4.4.1 Impedance-Based Anti-islanding Protection for Distributed Generators 109

4.4.2 Power Line Signaling-Based Transfer Trip Scheme 110

4.4.3 PT Ferroresonance Protection 112

4.4.4 Summary 113

4.5 Power Electronics Signaling Technology 113

4.6 Conclusions 115

References 116

Part II Communications

5
Introduction to Smart Grid Communications 121
Wenbo Shi and Vincent W. S. Wong

5.1 Introduction 122

5.2 An Overview of Network Architecture 124

5.3 Premises Network 127

5.4 Neighborhood Area Network 131

5.5 Wide Area Network 135

5.6 Standardization Activities 138

5.7 Conclusions 141

References 142

6 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS IN SMART GRIDS 145
Juan José García Fernández, Lars Torsten Berger, Ana García Armada, María Julia Fernández-Getino García, Víctor P. Gil Jiménez, and Troels B. Sørensen

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Wireless Personal Area Networks 150

6.2.1 802.15.4 Physical Layer 151

6.2.2 802.15.4 Medium Access Control Sublayer 153

6.2.3 ZigBee Network Layer 154

6.2.4 ZigBee Application Layer 155

6.3 Wireless Local Area Networks 156

6.3.1 Wi-Fi Physical Layer (PHY) 157

6.3.2 Wi-Fi Medium Access Control (MAC) 160

6.4 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks 162

6.4.1 The 802.16 Physical Layer 162

6.4.2 The 802.16 Medium Access Control Layer 164

6.5 Cellular Networks 165

6.5.1 Cellular Systems 165

6.5.2 Applicability to Machine-to-Machine Communications 166

6.5.3 Cellular Characteristics 167

6.6 Satellite Communications 170

6.6.1 Satellite Orbits 171

6.6.2 Satellite Regulations 173

6.6.3 Frequency Bands and Propagation Effects 174

6.6.4 Satellite Technology and Topology Considerations 175

6.6.5 Satellite Communication Standards 176

6.6.6 Fixed Satellite Systems 178

6.6.7 Mobile Satellite Systems 180

6.7 Conclusions 181

Acknowledgment 182

References 182

7 Wireline Communications in Smart Grids 191
Lars Torsten Berger

7.1 Introduction 191

7.2 Phone Line Technology 195

7.2.1 DSL Overview 195

7.2.2 DSL Scenarios 196

7.2.3 ADSL2+ and VDSL2 199

7.3 Coaxial Cable Technologies 201

7.3.1 Coax Scenarios 202

7.3.2 Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 203

7.4 Power Line Technology 204

7.4.1 PLC Scenarios, Channel, and Noise Aspects 205

7.4.2 PLC Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulations 210

7.4.3 Narrowband PLC 213

7.4.4 Broadband PLC 215

7.5 Conclusions 220

Acknowledgment 220

References 220

8 Optical Communications in Smart Grids 231
Kris Iniewski

8.1 Introduction 231

8.2 Passive Optical Networks (PONs) 232

8.3 Wave Length Division Multiplexing (WDM) 235

8.4 SONET/SDH 238

8.5 Carrier Ethernet 239

8.6 Conclusions 241

References 242

9 Network Layer Aspects of Smart Grid Communications 243
Kris Iniewski

9.1 Introduction 243

9.2 TCP/IP Networks 244

9.2.1 TCP/IP Protocol Stack 244

9.2.2 Quality of Service (QoS) 247

9.2.3 IPv6 247

9.2.4 TCP/IP for Wireless Networks 247

9.3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 248

9.4 Conclusions 248

References 249

10 Smart Grid Sensing, Automation, and Control Protocols 251
Wolfgang Mahnke

10.1 Introduction 251

10.1.1 Communication 253

10.1.2 Information Model 257

10.2 Protocols and Standards 259

10.2.1 IEC 61850 260

10.2.2 IEC 61968/IEC 61970 267

10.2.3 OPC UA 272

10.2.4 DNP3 279

10.2.5 BACnet 280

10.2.6 OpenADR 282

10.2.7 ZigBee 284

10.2.8 Other Specifications 285

10.3 Conclusions 286

References 289

Part III security

11 Introduction to Smart Grid Cyber Security 295
Pedro Marín Fernandes

11.1 Introduction 295

11.2 Examples 299

11.2.1 The North American Example 299

11.2.2 The European Example 314

11.3 Conclusion 316

References 319

12 Smart Grid Security Standardization 321
Steffen Fries and Hans-Joachim Hof

12.1 Standardization Activities 321

12.2 Smart Grid Security Requirements 321

12.3 Security Relevant Regulation and Standardization Activities 323

12.3.1 ISO/IEC 324

12.3.2 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 327

12.3.3 ISA (International Society of Automation) 327

12.3.4 CIGRE 328

12.3.5 NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation) 328

12.3.6 National Activities 329

12.4 Trends in Energy Automation Security 332

12.5 Conclusion 333

References 333

13 Smart Grid Authentication and Key Management 337
Anthony Metke

13.1 Introduction and Scope 337

13.1.1 Overview of Potential Vulnerabilities 338

13.1.2 High Level System Requirements 339

13.1.3 Review of Key Management Techniques 341

13.2 Authentication and Authorization Issues in the Smart Grid 347

13.2.1 Grid to Grid 347

13.2.2 AMI 348

13.2.3 HAN 349

13.3 Architectural Considerations and Recommendations 350

13.3.1 Malware Protection 350

13.3.2 Device Attestation 353

13.3.3 Holistic PKI model 353

13.4 Conclusion and Next Steps 358

References 360

Part IV Case Studies and Field Trials

14 Hybrid Wireless–Plc Smart Grid in Rural Greece 365
Angeliki M. Sarafi , Athanasios E. Drougas, Petros I. Papaioannou, and Panayotis G. Cottis

14.1 Introduction 365

14.2 Network Design and Implementation 366

14.2.1 PHY and MAC Specifications 367

14.2.2 Cell-Based Architecture for W-BPL Networks 369

14.2.3 The Network Operating Center (NOC) 369

14.2.4 Last-Mile Access 370

14.3 Smart-Grid Applications Offered in Larissa 371

14.3.1 Grid Monitoring and Operations Optimization 371

14.3.2 Demand-Side Management 373

14.3.3 Broadband Services 374

14.4 Key Lessons Learned 375

14.4.1 Issues Related to the Site of the BPL Deployment 375

14.4.2 Issues Related to the Condition of MV Grid 376

14.4.3 Application Related Issues 377

14.5 Conclusions 378

References 379

15 SMART CHARGING THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FLEET 381
Peter Bach Andersen, Einar Bragi Hauksson, Anders Bro Pedersen, Dieter Gantenbein, Bernhard Jansen, Claus Amtrup Andersen, and Jacob Dall

15.1 Introduction 381

15.2 The Fleet Operator as a New Conceptual Role 382

15.2.1 Fleet Operator Interaction with Grid and Market Stakeholders 382

15.2.2 The Objective of the Fleet Operator 384

15.2.3 ICT Architecture Setup and Requirements 385

15.3 EDISON and the Use of Standards 386

15.3.1 Standards Between Electric Vehicle and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: IEC 61851 and ISO/IEC 15118 387

15.3.2 Standard Between Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment and Fleet Operator: IEC 61850 388

15.4 Smart Charging Communication Components 390

15.4.1 The IEC 61850 Server 390

15.4.2 The EDISON VPP 392

15.4.3 The EDISON I/O Board 394

15.5 Charging Infrastructure Communication 394

15.5.1 Interface Connecting EV to EVSE 395

15.5.2 Interface Connecting EVSE to Fleet Operator 396

15.5.3 Interface Connecting EV User to Fleet Operator 399

15.6 Demonstration 400

15.6.1 End-to-End Demonstration: From EV to Operator Panel 400

15.6.2 Physical Demonstration Assets 401

15.6.3 A Large-Scale Virtual Fleet 402

15.7 Conclusion and Future Work 403

References 406

16 Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Line Parameters 409
Wenyuan Li, Paul Choudhury, and Jun Sun

16.1 Introduction 409

16.2 Basic Concepts 410

16.3 Filtering Invalid Measurements 412

16.4 Estimating Parameters Rij, Xij, and Y 414

16.5 Simulation Results 417

16.5.1 Estimating Parameters of a Line in

IEEE 118-Bus System, 418

16.5.2 Estimating Parameters of a Line in BC Hydro System 418

16.6 Conclusions 421

References 426

17 Wamcp Study: Voltage Stability Monitoring and Control 429
Mats Larsson

17.1 Wide-Area Voltage Stability Protection 429

17.1.1 Power System State Prediction and Optimization 430

17.1.2 Heuristic Tree Search 431

17.1.3 Voltage Stability Protection Based on Local Measurements 433

17.1.4 Test Network 433

17.1.5 Scenarios and Simulation Results 436

17.2 Conclusion 440

References 440

18 Secure Remote Access to Home Energy Appliances 443
Steffen Fries and Hans-Joachim Hof

18.1 Introduction 443

18.2 Challenges in the Smart Grid 444

18.3 Access Control and Authorization for Remote Access to Home Energy Appliances 446

18.3.1 ASIA: Operation in Session Invocation Mode 448

18.3.2 ASIA: Operation in Redirect Mode 449

18.3.3 ASIA: Operation in Proxy Mode 450

18.3.4 ASIA Mode Comparison 451

Index 455

“I highly recommend the very complete reference book Smart Grid Applications, Communications, and Security, edited by Lars T. Berger, Ph.D., and Krzysztof Iniewski, Ph.D., to any engineers, power utility executives, business leaders, policy makers, government officials, and engineering students who are seeking a useful overview of the various aspects of the smart grid and its impact. This book will provide the essential foundation to understanding the smart grid, and will lead to further more specialized research and study as well.” (Blog Business World, 2012)