Skip to main content

Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials, 8 Volume Set




Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials, 8 Volume Set

Jonathan W. Steed (Editor-in-Chief), Philip A. Gale (Editor-in-Chief)

ISBN: 978-0-470-74640-0 February 2012 4014 Pages

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.


Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials is a new major reference work which links supramolecular chemistry and nanomaterials. Presenting over 150 tutorial articles and spanning over 10 comprehensive sections, this new resource covers:
  • Concepts
  • Techniques
  • Molecular recognition
  • Supramolecular reactivity
  • Supramolecular aspects of chemical biology
  • Self processes
  • Supramolecular devices
  • Supramolecular materials chemistry
  • Soft matter
  • Nanotechnology

Supramolecular chemistry is 'chemistry beyond the molecule'. While traditional chemistry focuses on the bonds that hold atoms together in a molecule, supramolecular chemistry examines the weaker interactions that hold groups of molecules together. Important concepts that have been demonstrated by supramolecular chemistry include molecular self-assembly, folding, molecular recognition, host-guest chemistry, mechanically-interlocked molecular architectures, and dynamic covalent chemistry.

The importance of supramolecular chemistry was established by the 1987 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, which was awarded to Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, and Charles J. Pedersen in recognition of their work in the field.

The past decade has seen dramatic developments in the field, with supramolecular chemistry leaving its roots in classical host guest chemistry and expanding into exciting areas of materials chemistry and nanoscience with many real and potential applications. Supramolecular findings are evolving our understanding of the way chemical concepts at the molecular level build up into materials and systems with fascinating, emergent properties on the nanoscale. 

Supramolecular chemistry: the biggest challenge yet!

"Creating that link between the chemist's understanding of the way in which molecules interact with one another, and the understanding a materials scientist, engineer or biologist has of the resulting properties of a material or system comprised of those molecules is one of the huge grand challenges facing modern molecular science."
Philip A. Gale and Jonathan W. Steed, Editors-in-Chief

Linking supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology to define the field in the 21st Century…

Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials is the first major reference to link supramolecular chemistry and nanotechnology. A global team of experts present an overview of the concepts and techniques of modern supramolecular chemistry, demonstrating how these paradigms evolve into nanoscale systems chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science and beyond.

Breaking down the barriers between synthetic chemistry and materials science, the authors demonstrate how modern techniques allow access increasingly far along the 'synthesising-up' pathway. Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials explains the fundamental concepts and provides invaluable practical guidance on the applications and limitations of modern instrumental techniques for addressing molecular and materials-based problems.

The printed edition of Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials is available as an eight-volume set. Publishing in full colour to enhance the interpretation of complex supramolecular structures the printed edition

  • is highly illustrated with an average of three images per page
  • features fully indexed articles with cross-references integrated into the text
  • includes a glossary of key terms

Online Edition
Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials is now available online.  For further information visit


Contributors to Volume 1 xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xix

Concepts 1

Definition and Emergence of Supramolecular Chemistry 3
Jonathan W. Steed/Jerry L. Atwood/Philip A. Gale

Supramolecular Interactions 9
Dushyant B. Varshey/John R. G. Sander/Tomislav Friscic/ Leonard R. MacGillivray

Complementarity and Preorganization 25
James B. Wittenberg/Lyle Isaacs

The Thermodynamics of Molecular Recognition 45
Corinne L. D. Gibb/Bruce C. Gibb

Cooperativity and the Chelate, Macrocyclic and Cryptate Effects 67
Richard W. Taylor/Rowshan Ara Begum/Victor W. Day/Kristin Bowman-James

Multivalency 95
Mary J. Cloninger/Ba¸sar Bilgi¸cer/Lingyin Li/Shane L. Mangold/Scott T. Phillips/Mark L. Wolfenden

Solvation Effects in Supramolecular Recognition 117
Mikhail Rekharsky/Yoshihisa Inoue

Competition Experiments 135
Lei You/Eric V. Anslyn

Supramolecular Information/Programming from a Boolean Perspective 161
A. Prasanna de Silva

Self-Assembly and Self-Organization 167
Michael F. Geer/Linda S. Shimizu

Introduction to Surfactant Self-Assembly 181
Laurence S. Romsted

Reversible Covalent Bond Toolbox 205
Yunfeng Cheng/Hanjing Peng/Binghe Wang

Chirality 217
F. Richard Keene


Contributors to Volume 2 xiii

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Abbreviations and Acronyms xxi

Techniques 237

Binding Constants and Their Measurement 239
Pall Thordarson

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in Supramolecular Chemistry 275
Franz P. Schmidtchen

NMR Spectroscopy in Solution 297
Jesus Garcıa/Lucas G. Martins/Miquel Pons

Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) 319
Alceo Macchioni/Gianluca Ciancaleoni/Cristiano Zuccaccia/Daniele Zuccaccia

Solid-State NMR Studies on Supramolecular Chemistry 331
Michele R. Chierotti/Roberto Gobetto

Mass Spectrometry and Gas-Phase Chemistry of Supermolecules: A Primer 347
Egor V. Dzyuba/Johannes Poppenberg/Sebastian Richter/Ralf W. Troff/Christoph A. Schalley

Luminescent Spectroscopy in Supramolecular Chemistry 379
Sundus Erbas-Cakmak/Ruslan Guliyev/Engin U. Akkaya

Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy 393
Tohru Taniguchi/Toyonobu Usuki

Dynamic Light Scattering in Supramolecular Materials Chemistry 411
Jorg Braun/Kasper Renggli/Julia Razumovitch/Corinne Vebert

X-Ray Diffraction: Addressing Structural Complexity in Supramolecular Chemistry 425
Gary D. Enright/Satoshi Takeya/John A. Ripmeester

Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) of Supramolecular Assemblies 437
Adriana C. Toma/Thomas Pfohl

Supramolecular Electrochemistry 451
Amar H. Flood/Angel E. Kaifer

Transport Experiments in Membranes 473
Stefan Matile/Naomi Sakai/Andreas Hennig

Vesicles in Supramolecular Chemistry 501
Bart Jan Ravoo

Rheology 517
Christophe Chassenieux/Laurent Bouteiller

Langmuir–Blodgett Films 529
Jeremy J. Ramsden

Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis as a Tool to Characterize Intermolecular Interactions 543
Steffen Kiessig/Alexandra Stettler/Samuel Fuhrimann/Maria Anna Schwarz

Ion Chromatography and Membrane Separations Using Macrocyclic Ligands 563
John D. Lamb/Na Li

Brewster Angle Microscopy 589
Keith J. Stine

Scanning Electron Microscopy 619
Zhan-Ting Li/Xin Zhao

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) 633
Jun-ichi Kikuchi/Kazuma Yasuhara

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) 647
Meike Stohr

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 659
Janne T. Hyotyla/Roderick Y. H. Lim

Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) 669
Gerd Kaupp

Computational Techniques (DFT, MM, TD-DFT, PCM) 689
Rosemary Sheehan/Peter J. Cragg

Uses of Differential Sensing and Arrays in Chemical Analysis 709
Michelle M. Adams/Leo A. Joyce/Eric V. Anslyn


Contributors to Volume 3 xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xix

Molecular Recognition 731

Crown and Lariat Ethers 733
Peter J. Cragg/Rafik Vahora

Azacycloalkanes and Azacyclophanes 753
Antonio Bianchi/Enrique Garcıa-Espa˜na

Hetero-Crown Ethers—Synthesis and Metal-Binding Properties of Macrocyclic Ligands Bearing Group 16 (S, Se, Te) Donor Atoms 785
William Levason/Gillian Reid

Cryptands and Spherands 811
Leonard F. Lindoy/Ki-Min Park/Shim Sung Lee

Schiff Base and Reduced Schiff Base Ligands 827
Bellam Sreenivasulu

Calixarenes in Molecular Recognition 863
Laura Baldini/Francesco Sansone/Alessandro Casnati/Rocco Ungaro

Cyclotriveratrylene and Cryptophanes 895
Michaele J. Hardie

Carcerands and Hemicarcerands 917
Ralf Warmuth

Cyclodextrins: From Nature to Nanotechnology 955
Stephen F. Lincoln/Duc-Truc Pham

Cucurbituril Receptors and Drug Delivery 983
Anthony Ivan Day/J. Grant Collins

Podands 1001
Adam N. Swinburne/Jonathan W. Steed

Porphyrins and Expanded Porphyrins as Receptors 1045
Jonathan L. Sessler/Elizabeth Karnas/Elaine Sedenberg

Supramolecular Phthalocyanine-Based Systems 1075
Christian G. Claessens/M. Victoria Martınez-Dıaz/Tomas Torres

Guanidinium-Based Receptors for Oxoanions 1101
Matthew P. Conley/Julian Valero/Javier de Mendoza

Anion Receptors Containing Heterocyclic Rings 1125
Philip A. Gale/Cally J. E. Haynes

Amide and Urea-Based Receptors 1153
Md. Alamgir Hossain/Rowshan Ara Begum/Victor W. Day/Kristin Bowman-James

Synthetic Peptide-Based Receptors 1179
Stefan Kubik

Biological Small Molecules as Receptors 1205
Carolina Godoy-Alc´antar/Anatoly K. Yatsimirsky

Receptors for Nucleotides 1225
Enrique Garc´ıa-Espana/Raquel Belda/Jorge Gonzalez/Javier Pitarch/Antonio Bianchi

Receptors for Zwitterionic Species 1259
Santiago V. Luis/Ignacio Alfonso/Francisco Galindo

Ion-Pair Receptors 1281
Antonella Dalla Cort

Metal Complexes as Receptors 1309
Stephen J. Loeb

Hydrogen-Bonding Receptors for Molecular Guests 1325
Andrew J. Wilson

Boronic Acid-Based Receptors 1345
John S. Fossey/Tony D. James


Contributors to Volume 4 xiii

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Abbreviations and Acronyms xxi

Supramolecular Reactivity 1381

Supramolecular Organocatalysis 1383
Philip A. Woods/Andrew D. Smith

Replication Processes—From Autocatalysis to Systems Chemistry 1415
J¨urgen Huck/Douglas Philp

Artificial Enzyme Mimics 1447
Barbara Geibel/Michael Merschky/Carolin Rether/Carsten Schmuck

Dynamic Covalent Chemistry 1497
Giulio Gasparini/Marta Dal Molin/Andrea Lovato/Leonard J. Prins

Reaction Networks 1527
Zehavit Dadon/Nathaniel Wagner/Rivka Cohen-Luria/Gonen Ashkenasy

Reactions in Dynamic Self-Assemblies 1543
E. Moulin/N. Giuseppone

Reactivity in Nanoscale Vessels 1575
Boris Breiner/Jonathan R. Nitschke

Reactions in Solid-State Inclusion Compounds 1589
Kenneth D.M. Harris/Benjamin A. Palmer/Gregory R. Edwards-Gau

Functional Polymers 1613
David Chappell/Barnaby W. Greenland/Wayne Hayes

Supramolecular Aspects of Chemical Biology 1637

Rational Design of Peptide-Based Biosupramolecular Systems 1639
Aimee L. Boyle/Derek N. Woolfson

Nucleic Acid Mimetics 1665
Matthew B. Coppock/Mary Elizabeth Williams

Supramolecular Approaches to the Study of Glycobiology 1685
Thisbe K. Lindhorst/Stefan Kubik

Porphyrinoids: Highly Versatile, Redox-Active Scaffolds for Supramolecular Design and Biomimetic Applications 1713
Jonathan P. Hill/Francis D’Souza/Katsuhiko Ariga

Supramolecular Chemistry of Membranes 1731
Gavin T. Noble/Robert J. Mart/Kwan Ping Liem/Simon J. Webb

Membrane Transport 1751
Roberto Quesada

Supramolecular Bioinorganic Chemistry 1771
Jean-Noel Rebilly/Olivia Reinaud

The Role of Supramolecular Chemistry in Responsive Vectors for Gene Delivery 1807
Caroline M. LaManna/Mark W. Grinstaff

Supramolecular Chemistry in In Vitro Biosensors 1825
Jing Sun/Min Cai/John J. Lavigne

Supramolecular Chemistry in Biological Imaging In Vivo 1851
Elise A. Schultz-Sikma/Thomas J. Meade

Aptamer Moieties in Biochemical Applications 1877
Michael J. Donovan/Ling Meng/Basri Gulbakan/Yan Chen/Parag Parekh/Kwame Sefah/Weihong Tan

Supramolecular Approaches for Inhibition of Protein–Protein and Protein–DNA Interactions 1885
Cooper H. Battle/Janarthanan Jayawickramarajah

Supramolecular Approaches to Medicinal Chemistry 1909
Shannon Biros/Fraser Hof

Supramolecular Systems for Tissue Engineering 1929
Adinarayana Andukuri/Jeremy B. Vines/Joel M. Anderson/Ho-Wook Jun

Chemical Biology Using Fluorinated Building Blocks 1947
Cristina Y. Zamora/Laila Dafik/Krishna Kumar


Contributors to Volume 5 xiii

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

Abbreviations and Acronyms xxi

Self-Processes 1965

Template Strategies in Self-Assembly 1967
David B. Amabilino

Self-Assembly of Coordination Compounds: Design Principles 1993
Santiago Alvarez/Eliseo Ruiz

Self-Assembly of Coordination Chains and Helices 2045
Inhar Imaz/Daniel Maspoch

Self-Assembly of Coordination Cages and Spheres 2071
Sota Sato/Takashi Murase/Makoto Fujita

Self-Assembly of Organic Supramolecular Capsules 2085
Alessandro Scarso/Giuseppe Borsato

Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Wires 2115
Jean Weiss/Matthieu Koepf/Jennifer A. Wytko

Synthesis of Supramolecular Nanotubes 2149
Rebeca Garc´ıa-Fandi˜no/Manuel Amor´ın/Juan R. Granja

Organic Foldamers and Helices 2183
Ivan Huc/Hua Jiang

Self-Assembly of Macromolecular Threaded Systems 2207
Yuya Tachibana/Kazuko Nakazono/Toshikazu Takata

Self-Assembled Links: Catenanes 2225
Nicholas H. Evans/Paul D. Beer

Templated Synthesis of Knots and Ravels 2245
Jean-Pierre Sauvage/David B. Amabilino

Self-Assembly of Nucleic Acids 2263
Karina M. M. Carneiro/Pik Kwan Lo/Hanadi F. Sleiman

Viruses as Self-Assembled Templates 2275
Jennifer M. Rego/Hyunmin Yi

Peptide Self-Assembly 2293
Silvia Cavalli/Hana Robson Marsden/Fernando Albericio/Alexander Kros

Rotaxanes—Self-Assembled Links 2311
Xiang Ma/He Tian

Supramolecular Devices 2331

Photoprocesses of Relevance to Supramolecular Chemistry 2333
Fabian Spanig/Alexandre Haefele/Felix N. Castellano

Photoinduced Electron Transfer Processes in Biological and Artificial Supramolecules 2365
Mamoru Fujitsuka/Tetsuro Majima

Molecular Devices: Energy Transfer 2397
Sara Bonacchi/Damiano Genovese/Riccardo Juris/Marco Montalti/Luca Prodi/Enrico Rampazzo/Nelsi Zaccheroni

Molecular Devices: Molecular Machinery 2425
Mingming Zhang/Kelong Zhu/Feihe Huang

Molecular Logic Gates 2497
A. Prasanna de Silva

Single-Molecule Electronics 2507
Robert M. Metzger

Molecular Redox Sensors 2523
James H. R. Tucker

Ion-Selective Electrodes With Ionophore-Doped Sensing Membranes 2539
Philippe Buhlmann/Li D. Chen

Colorimetric Sensors 2581
Hiromitsu Maeda/Pavel Anzenbacher, Jr

Luminescent Sensing 2611
Jonathan A. Kitchen/Raman Parkesh/Emma B. Veale/Thorfinnur Gunnlaugsson

Photoswitching Materials 2643
Chi-Chiu Ko/Vivian Wing-Wah Yam

Supramolecular Chemistry in Medicine 2675
Stephen Faulkner/Alan M. Kenwright

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents 2693
Celia S. Bonnet/Eva Toth

Supramolecular Chemistry for Organic Photovoltaics 2725
Pavel A. Troshin/Niyazi S. Sariciftci


Contributors to Volume 6 xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xix

Supramolecular Materials Chemistry 2789

Crystal Engineering 2791
Edward R. T. Tiekink

Noncovalent Interactions in Crystals 2829
Paola Gilli/Gastone Gilli

Concepts and Nomenclature in Chemical Crystallography 2869
Leonard J. Barbour/Dinabandhu Das/Tia Jacobs/Gareth O. Lloyd/Vincent J. Smith

Crystal Structure Prediction 2905
Graeme M. Day

The Cambridge Structural Database System and Its Applications in Supramolecular Chemistry and Materials Design 2927
Elna Pidcock/James A. Chisholm/Peter A. Wood/Peter T.A. Galek/Laszlo Fabian/Oliver Korb/Aurora J. Cruz-Cabeza/John W. Liebeschuetz/Colin R. Groom/Frank H. Allen

Crystal Growth and Molecular Crystal Growth Modification 2947
Franca Jones/Mark I. Ogden

Polymorphism: Fundamentals and Applications 2957
Srinivasulu Aitipamula/Ashwini Nangia

Cocrystals: Synthesis, Structure, and Applications 2975
Christer B. Aakeroy/Prashant D. Chopade

Mechanical Preparation of Crystalline Materials. An Oxymoron? 2993
Dario Braga/Elena Dichiarante/Fabrizia Grepioni/Giulio I. Lampronti/Lucia Maini/Paolo P. Mazzeo/Simone D'Agostino

Physico-Chemical Aspects of Inclusion Compounds 3009
Nikoletta B. Bathori/Luigi R. Nassimbeni

Clathrate Hydrates 3017
Saman Alavi/Konstantin Udachin/Christopher I. Ratcliffe/John A. Ripmeester

Synthetic Clathrate Systems 3033
Roger Bishop

Network and Graph Set Analysis 3057
Lars R. Ohrstrom

Coordination Polymers 3073
Edwin C. Constable

Zeolitelike Metal–Organic Frameworks (ZMOFs): Design, Structure, and Properties 3087
Mohamed H. Alkordi/Mohamed Eddaoudi

Interpenetration 3107
Stuart R. Batten

Supramolecular Isomerism 3121
Susan A. Bourne

Gas Storage and Separation in Supramolecular Materials 3133
Jian Tian/Praveen K. Thallapally/Bernard Peter McGrail

Templated [2 + 2] Photodimerizations in the Solid State 3153
Elizabeth Elacqua/Rebecca C. Laird/Leonard R. MacGillivray


Contributors to Volume 7 xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xix

Soft Matter 3167

Soft Matter Science—a Historical Overview with a Supramolecular Perspective 3169
David K. Smith

Multicomponent Self-Assembled Polymers Based on π-Conjugated Systems 3183
Adrien Kaeser/Martin Wolffs/Albertus P. H. J. Schenning

Functions Based on Dynamic Structural Changes of Coordination Polymers 3205
Mitsuru Kondo

Self-Healing and Mendable Supramolecular Polymers 3221
Stefano Burattini/Howard M. Colquhoun/Barnaby W. Greenland/Wayne Hayes

Assembly of Block Copolymers 3235
Dave J. Adams/Paul D. Topham

Molecularly Imprinted Polymers 3255
Borje Sellergren/Andrew J. Hall

Supramolecular Dendrimer Chemistry 3283
Monica Soler/George R. Newkome

Hyperbranched Polymers in Supramolecular Chemistry 3297
Barnaby W. Greenland/Wayne Hayes

Supramolecular Chemistry in Polymer Networks 3321
Pol Besenius/Peter A. G. Cormack

Stimuli-Responsive and Motile Supramolecular Soft Materials 3337
Paul D. Topham/Anthony J. Ryan

Self-Assembling Fibrillar Networks—Supramolecular Gels 3355
David K. Smith

Self-Assembly of Facial Amphiphiles in Water 3377
Job Boekhoven/Patrick van Rijn/Jan H. van Esch

Self-Assembly of Surfactants at Solid Surfaces 3395
Michele Ferrari

Physisorption for Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Systems: A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Perspective 3419
Kunal S. Mali/Jinne Adisoejoso/Inge De Cat/Tanya Balandina/Elke Ghijsens/Zongxia Guo/Min Li/Mahesh Sankara Pillai/Willem Vanderlinden/Hong Xu/Steven De Feyter

Chemisorbed Self-Assembled Monolayers 3445
Omar Azzaroni/Roberto C. Salvarezza

Self-Organization and Self-Assembly in Liquid-Crystalline Materials 3463
John W. Goodby/Isabel M. Saez/Stephen J. Cowling

Liquid Crystals Formed from Specific Supramolecular Interactions 3493
Duncan W. Bruce

Covalent Capture of Self-Assembled Soft Materials 3515
Bing Gong

Designing Peptide-Based Supramolecular Biomaterials 3525
Vineetha Jayawarna/Rein V. Ulijn

Self-Assembly of Polymers into Soft Nanoparticles and Nanocapsules 3541
Jianbin Tang/Dingcheng Zhu/Youqing Shen

Self-Assembled Polymer Supermolecules as Templates for Nanomaterials 3563
Bhanu Nandan/Manfred Stamm


Contributors to Volume 8 xiii

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Abbreviations and Acronyms xix

Nanotechnology 3587

Nanotechnology: The "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up" Approaches 3589
Parvez Iqbal/Jon A. Preece/Paula M. Mendes

Nanolithography 3603
Graham J. Leggett

Two-Dimensional Supramolecular Chemistry 3625
Anna G. Phillips/Peter H. Beton/Neil R. Champness

Biologically Derived Supramolecular Materials 3647
Steven J. Langford/Melissa J. Latter/Bradley E. Wilman/Sheshanath V. Bhosale

Supramolecular Hybrid Nanomaterials as Prospective Sensing Platforms 3669
Mustafa Biyikal/Mandy Hecht/Ramon Martınez-Manez/Knut Rurack/Felix Sancenon

Self-Assembled Nanoparticles 3699
Dr Rachel K. O'Reilly

Photochemically Driven Molecular Devices and Machines 3719
Alberto Credi/Serena Silvi/Margherita Venturi

Magnetically Responsive Self-Assembled Composite Materials 3751
Alshakim Nelson/Qiu Dai

Advances in Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes 3767
Gregg P. Kotchey/Alexander Star

One-Dimensional Nanostructures of Molecular Graphenes 3791
Wei Zhang/Takanori Fukushima/Takuzo Aida

Supramolecular Nanoparticles for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics 3809
Kuan-Ju Chen/Mitch Andre Garcia/Hao Wang/Hsian-Rong Tseng

Atomic Force Microscopy Measurements of Supramolecular Interactions 3825
Bo Song/Holger Schonherr

Nanoelectronics 3841
Nathan D. McClenaghan/Aurelien Ducrot

Glossary 3859

Subject Index 3887