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Survey Nonresponse


A compendium of up-to-date research in survey nonresponse

Survey Nonresponse compiles theoretical and empirical research by noted experts to provide a current review of the field. It covers the behavioral underpinnings of non-response, its impact on the error structure of survey estimates, and current methods of adjusting the estimation process to account for nonresponse.

The volume combines literatures from social science and statistics to present a complete picture of modern methods of design and estimation in the face of missing survey data. The book is divided into four sections that discuss these fundamental issues:

  • Alternative perspectives on causes and consequences of nonresponse
  • Current theory and practice in survey protocols to reduce nonresponse rates
  • How nonresponse varies systematically by various design features
  • Statistical inference accounting for nonresponse

Survey Nonresponse can be used as a supplementary text for graduate students in survey methodology courses, or as a reference for researchers and professionals. It offers a balanced approach, up-to-date research, and thoroughly modern thinking on this vital subject.

This title has been named the 2011 American Association for Public Opinion Research Award winner. It is the Association's lifetime achievement award.

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Survey Nonresponse in Design, Data Collection, and Analysis (D. Dillman, et al.).

Developing Nonresponse Standards (T. Smith).

Trends in Household Survey Nonresponse: A Longitudinal and International Comparison (E. de Leeuw and W. de Heer).

Culture and Survey Nonresponse (T. Johnson, et al.).

To Answer or Not to Answer: Decision Processes Related to Survey Item Nonresponse (P. Beatty and D. Herrmann).

The Causes of No-Opinion Response to Attitude Measures in Surveys: They Are Rarely What They Appear to Be (J. Krosnick).


The Influence of Interviewers' Attitude and Behavior on Household Survey Nonresponse: An International Comparison (J. Hox and E. de Leeuw).

Persuading Reluctant Recipients in Telephone Surveys (W. Dijkstra and J. Smit).

The Effects of Extended Interviewer Efforts on Nonresponse Bias (P. Lynn, et al.).

Effect of Item Nonresponse on Nonresponse Error and Inference (R. Mason, et al.).

The Use of Incentives to Reduce Nonresponse in Household Surveys (E. Singer).

The Influence of Alternative Visual Designs on Respondents' Performance with Branching Instructions in Self-Administered Questionnaires (C. Redline and D. Dillman).


Evaluating Nonresponse Error in Mail Surveys (D. Moore and J. Tarnai).

Understanding Unit and Item Nonresponse in Business Surveys (D. Willimack, et al.).

Nonresponse in Web Surveys (V. Vehovar, et al.).

Nonresponse in Exit Polls: A Conprehensive Analysis (D. Merkle and M. Edelman).

Nonresponse in the Second Wave of Longitudinal Household Surveys (J. Lepkowski and M. Couper).


Weighting Nonresponse Adjustments Based on Auxiliary Information (J. Bethlehem).

Poststratification and Weighting Adjustments (A. Gelman and J. Carlin).

Replication Methods for Variance Estimation in Complex Surveys with Imputed Data (J. Shao).

Variance Estimation from Survey Data under Single Imputation (H. Lee, et al.).

Large-Scale Imputation for Complex Surveys (D. Marker, et al.).

A Congenial Overview and Investigation of Multiple Imputation Inferences under Uncongeniality (X. Meng).

Multivariate Imputation of Coarsened Survey Data on Household Wealth (S. Heeringa, et al.).

Modeling Nonignorable Attrition and Measurement Error in Panel Surveys: An Application to Travel Demand Modeling (D. Brownstone, et al.).

Using Matched Substitutes to Adjust for Nonignorable Nonresponse through Multiple Imputations (D. Rubin and E. Zanutto).

Using Administrative Records to Impute for Nonresponse (E. Zanutto and A. Zaslavsky).

Imputation for Wave Nonresponse: Existing Methods and a Time Series Approach (D. Pfeffermann and G. Nathan).

Diagnostics for the Practical Effects of Nonresponse Adjustment Methods (J. Eltinge).


"This volume provides current nonresponse literature to survey practitioners, and could prove to be a good reference book for graduate students in survey research and methodology." (Journal of the American Statistical Association, June 2004)

"Suitable as a supplementary text for graduate students in survey methodology courses, and as a reference for researchers and professionals." (Reference & Research Book News, February 2002)

"...another product of the Survey Research Methodology Section of the American Statistical Association...This book is an outgrowth of the International Conference on Survey Nonresponse..."Technometrics, Vol. 44, No. 3, August 2002)