Skip to main content

Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends

Hardcover

£178.00

*VAT

Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends

K. L. Mittal (Editor), Thomas Bahners (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-42676-9 September 2017 588 Pages

E-Book
£160.99
Hardcover
£178.00
O-Book
Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.

Description

Textiles have been historically and traditionally used to make clothes, but even in ancient times there were technical textiles for making sails, tents, etc. Today, technical textiles are used in various industries for a host of purposes and applications. Recently, there have been exciting developments on various fronts in the textile field to impart novel and innovative functionalities to textiles, e.g., easy-to-clean or dirt-repellent, flame retardancy, anti-bacterial, and fog-harvesting properties, to name a few. Also, textiles for electronics based on graphene, CNTs and other nanomaterials, conductive textiles, textiles for sensor function,   textile-fixed catalysts,  textiles for batteries and energy storage, textiles as substrates for tissue engineering, and textiles for O/W separation have appeared in the literature. All this has been possible through adopting novel ways for finishing textiles, e.g., by appropriate surface modification techniques, and utilizing biomimetic concepts borrowed from nature.

This unique book entitled “Textile Finishing: Recent Developments and Future Trends” is divided into four parts: Part 1: Recent Developments/Current Challenges in Textile Finishing; Part 2: Surface Modification Techniques for Textiles; Part 3: Innovative Functionalities of Textiles; Part 4: Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

The topics covered include: Antimicrobial textile finishes; flame retardant textile finishing; “self-cleaning” or easy-to-clean textiles; metallization of textiles; atmospheric pressure plasma, and uv-based photochemical surface modification of textiles; tunable wettability of textiles; 3D textile structures for fog harvesting; textile-fixed catalysts; medical textiles as substrates for tissue engineering; and fiber-reinforced “green” or “greener” biocomposites and the relevance of fiber/matrix adhesion.

Preface xv

Part 1 Recent Developments and Current Challenges in Textile Finishing

1 Recent Concepts of Antimicrobial Textile Finishes 3
Barbara Simončič and Brigita Tomšič

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Antimicrobial Agents 5

1.2.1 Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Activity 6

1.2.2 Structures of Antimicrobial Agents 7

1.2.2.1 Leaching Antimicrobial Agents 7

1.2.2.2 Bound Antimicrobial Agents 17

1.3 Low Adhesion Agents 21

1.4 Dual-Action Antimicrobial Agents 24

1.5 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Functionalized Textiles 29

1.5.1 Standardized Methods for the Determination of Antibacterial Activity 31

1.5.2 Standardized Methods for the Determination of Antifungal Activity 35

1.6 Health and Environmental Issues 39

1.6.1 Health and Environmental Impacts of Antimicrobial Compounds 41

1.7 Future Trends 46

1.8 Summary 46

Acknowledgement 48

References 48

2 Flame Retardant Textile Finishes 69
A Richard Horrocks

2.1 Introduction 70

2.2 Current Commercial, Durable Flame Retardants: Advantages and Disadvantages 71

2.3 Current Challenges 78

2.3.1 Minimisation of Effluents 78

2.3.2 Replacing Formaldehyde Chemistry, Particularly with Respect to Cotton and Blended Fabrics 82

2.3.2.1 Oligomeric Phosphate-Phosphonate 83

2.3.2.2 Multifunctional Carboxylic Acids 83

2.3.2.3 Alkyl Phosphoramidate Adduct 86

2.3.2.4 Phosphonyl Cyanurates 87

2.3.2.5 Cellulose-Phosphoramidate Ester Interchange 88

2.3.2.6 Cellulose-Chloro Triazinyl Derivative Condensation 89

2.3.2.7 Phosphorus Acid Derivatives of Cellulose 90

2.3.2.8 Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Silicon Developments 91

2.3.2.9 Polymer Networks 92

2.3.2.10 Other Finishing Treatments 93

2.3.3 Replacing Bromine, Notably in Coating and Back-Coating Formulations 94

2.3.3.1 Reducing the BrFR Concentrations 95

2.3.3.2 Possible Bromine-Chlorine and Phosphorus-Bromine Synergies 96

2.3.3.3 Effectiveness of Phosphorus 97

2.3.3.4 The Sensitisation of Decomposition or Flame Retarding Efficiency of Phosphorus-Based Systems 99

2.3.3.5 The Introduction of a Volatile and Possible Vapour-Phase Active, Phosphorus-Based Flame Retardant Component 99

2.4 Novel Surface Chemistries 101

2.4.1 Sol-Gel Surface Treatments 103

2.4.2 Layer-by-Layer Treatments 107

2.4.3 Polymer Coating and UV and Plasma Grafting Treatments 111

2.4.3.1 Plasma Treatments 112

2.4.3.2 UV and Other Grafting Treatments 116

2.5 Summary 117

References 117

Bibliography 127

3 Striving for Self-Cleaning Textiles – Critical Thoughts on Current Literature 129
Thomas Bahners and Kash Mittal

3.1 Introduction 130

3.2 Fundamental Principles 133

3.2.1 Self-Cleaning – The Super-Hydrophobic Approach 133

3.2.2 Self-Cleaning – The Super-Hydrophilic Approach 136

3.2.3 Expected Merits of the Concepts 138

3.3 Attempts to Attain Super-Hydrophobic Behavior 140

3.3.1 Minimized Surface Free Energy 140

3.3.1.1 Novel Chemical Finishes of Non-Polar Character 141

3.3.1.2 Deposition of Non-Polar Thin Layers by Plasma and Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) 142

3.3.1.3 Deposition of Non-Polar Thin Layers by Photo-Chemical Surface Modification 145

3.3.2 Enhancing Liquid Repellence by Adding Surface Roughness 147

3.3.2.1 Application of Micro- and Nano-Rough (Hybrid) Coatings 147

3.3.2.2 Incorporation of Micro- and Nanoparticles 149

3.3.2.3 Laser-Based Surface Roughening 151

3.4 Attempts to Attain Super-Hydrophilic Properties 153

3.4.1 Use of Photo-Catalytic TiO2 153

3.4.2 Making Use of Micro-Roughness According to the Wenzel Model 155

3.5 Relevance for Dirt Take-Up, Cleanability, and Self-Cleaning 156

3.6 Summary 160

References 162

4 Metallization of Polymers and Textiles 171
Piotr Rytlewski, Krzysztof Moraczewski and Bartłomiej Jagodziński

4.1 Introduction 171

4.2 Main Methods of Metallization 173

4.2.1 Methods Based on Physical Vapor Deposition 173

4.2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition Methods 178

4.3 Electroless Metallization 184

4.4 Summary 198

References 199

5 Wettability Characterization in Textiles – Use and Abuse of Measuring Procedures 207
Thomas Bahners, Helga Thomas and Jochen S. Gutmann

5.1 Introduction 208

5.2 Peculiarities of Textile Substrates 209

5.3 Wettability Measurements on Fabrics 213

5.3.1 Contact Angle Measurements 213

5.3.2 Drop Penetration Tests 217

5.3.3 Soaking or Rising Height Test 222

5.3.4 The Wilhelmy Method 224

5.4 Contact Angle Measurements on Fibers 226

5.4.1 Adapting the Wilhelmy Plate Method to Single Fibers 226

5.4.2 The Washburn Approach – Wilhelmy Wicking Method 226

5.5 Summary and Concluding Remarks 228

Acknowledgements 231

References 231

Part 2 Surface Modification Techniques for Textiles

6 Surface Functionalization of Synthetic Textiles by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma 237
Keiko Gotoh

6.1 Introduction 237

6.2 Processing Parameters of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (APP) Jet 239

6.3 Change in Single Fiber Wettability Due to APP Jet Treatment 241

6.4 Hydrophobic Recovery after APP Jet Treatment 244

6.5 Chemical and Topographical Changes on Fiber Surface Due to APP Jet Treatment 245

6.6 Fabric Damage Due to APP Jet Treatment 247

6.7 Improvement of Textile Serviceability Properties by APP Jet Treatment 250

6.7.1 Water Wicking Property 250

6.7.2 Detergency 251

6.7.3 Dyeability 252

6.8 Summary and Prospects 254

Acknowledgements 254

References 255

7 UV-Based Photo-Chemical Surface Modification of Textile Fabrics 261
Thomas Bahners and Jochen S. Gutmann

7.1 Introduction 261

7.2 Fundamentals of the Process 263

7.2.1 Photo-Addition, Irradiation in Air 263

7.2.2 Layer Formation by Homo-Polymerization and Graft-co-Polymerization 265

7.2.3 Experimental Concept 268

7.3 Fiber Properties Defined by the Surface Chemistry of Deposited Layers 269

7.3.1 Wetting and Adhesion 269

7.3.2 Wetting and Protein Adhesion – Antifouling Surfaces 271

7.3.3 Highly Liquid Repellent Technical Textiles 276

7.3.4 Patterned Wettablitity 280

7.4 Fiber Modification by Bulk Properties of Deposited Layers 281

7.4.1 Mechanical and Thermal Stability 282

7.4.2 Barrier Function 284

7.4.3 Charge Storage 285

7.4.4 Permanent Flame Retardant Finish 287

7.5 Summary and Outlook 289

References 291

Part 3 Innovative Functionalities of Textiles

8 Glimpses into Tunable Wettability of Textiles 299
Pelagia Glampedaki

8.1 Introduction 300

8.2 Paths to Tunable Wettability 302

8.2.1 Fibre and Textile Surface Functionalisation 305

8.2.2 Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Functionalising Systems 306

8.2.3 Modes of Functionalisation and Additional Parameters to be Considered 308

8.3 Practical Aspects and Applications 314

8.4 Prospects 316

8.5 Summary 318

References 318

9 3D Textile Structures for Harvesting Water from Fog: Overview and Perspectives 325
Jamal Sarsour, Thomas Stegmaier and Goetz Gresser

9.1 Introduction 326

9.2 Biological Models 327

9.2.1 Namib Desert Grass 327

9.2.2 Black Beetle in the Namib Desert 328

9.2.3 Epiphytic bromeliads 328

9.2.4 Pinus canariensis 330

9.3 Textile Development and Engineering 331

9.3.1 Fog Harvesting Efficiency in the Laboratory 333

9.3.2 Model of Drop Formation on the Yarn System of 3D Textiles 324

9.3.3 Scale Up to an Industrial Process 326

9.4 Technical Realization 340

9.5 Summary and Prospects 342

References 342

10 Textile-Fixed Catalysts and their Use in Heterogeneous Catalysis 345
Klaus Opwis, Katharina Kiehl, Thomas Straube, Thomas Mayer-Gall and Jochen S. Gutmann

10.1 Introduction 346

10.2 Immobilization of Catalysts on Textile Carrier Materials 348

10.2.1 Inorganic Catalysts 348

10.2.2 Organo-Metallic Catalysts 350

10.2.3 Enzymes 352

10.2.4 Organic Catalysts 355

10.3 Summary and Outlook 357

Acknowledgements 358

References 359

11 Medical Textiles as Substrates for Tissue Engineering 363
Sahar Salehi, Mahshid Kharaziha, Nafiseh Masoumi, Afsoon Fallahi, and Ali Tamayol

11.1 Introduction 364

11.1.1 Concept of TE 364

11.1.2 Background of Medical Textiles in TE 365

11.2 Fiber Formation Approaches 368

11.2.1 Wet Spinning 368

11.2.2 Melt Spinning 369

11.2.3 Microfluidic Spinning 369

11.2.4 Self-Assembly 371

11.3 Fiber-Based Architectures for the TE Scaffold 371

11.3.1 Woven Fabrics 371

11.3.2 Knitted Fabrics 373

11.3.3 Braided Fabrics 375

11.3.4 Non-Woven Fabrics 375

11.3.5 Bioprinting 377

11.4 Applications of Medical Textiles in TE 380

11.4.1 Musculoskeletal Tissues 380

11.4.2 Muscular Tissues 387

11.4.3 Ocular Tissues 391

11.4.4 Nerve Tissue 394

11.4.5 Skin 397

11.5 Summary and Prospects 399

Note 400

References 400

Part 4 Fiber-Reinforced Composites

12 Thermoset Resin Based Fiber Reinforced Biocomposites 425
D. Kalita and A. N. Netravali

12.1 Introduction 426

12.1.1 Reinforcements and Fillers 427

12.1.2 Resins 429

12.1.3 Composites 430

12.1.4 Nanocomposites 430

12.1.5 Interfaces 431

12.1.6 Petroleum Based and Biobased Resins and Fibers 432

12.2 Characteristics of Biocomposites 433

12.3 Composite Classification 434

12.3.1 Hybrid Composites 434

12.3.2 ‘Greener’ Composites 435

12.3.3 ‘Green’ Composites 435

12.4 Natural Fiber Processing 436

12.4.1 Fiber Extraction 437

12.4.2 Fiber Treatments 437

12.4.3 Fiber Forms (Nonwoven, Woven, Knitted) 438

12.5 Polymeric Resins 439

12.5.1 Green Resins 440

12.5.2 Thermoset Green Resins 441

12.5.2.1 Protein Based Resins 441

12.5.2.2 Starch Based Resins 444

12.5.2.3 Fats/Lipids/Oils Based Resins 447

12.6 Biobased Thermoset Composites 448

12.6.1 Plant Based Cellulose Fiber Biocomposites 449

12.6.2 Starch Based Biocomposites 450

12.6.3 Protein Based Biocomposites 452

12.6.4 Chitosan Based Biocomposites 453

12.6.5 Lipid Based Biocomposites 453

12.7 Bionanocomposites 456

12.7.1 Starch Based Nanocomposites 457

12.7.2 Cellulose Based Nanocomposites 458

12.7.3 Protein Based Nanocomposites 460

12.7.4 Chitosan Based Nanocomposites 462

12.8 Applications and Advantages of Biocomposites 463

12.9 Opportunity and Challenges 466

12.10 Summary 468

References 469

13 Characterisation of Fibre/Matrix Adhesion in Biobased Fibre-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites 485
J. Müssig and N. Graupner

13.1 Introduction 485

13.1.1 Terms and Definitions 487

13.1.1.1 Fibre 487

13.1.1.2 Fibre Bundle 487

13.1.1.3 Equivalent Diameter 488

13.1.1.4 Critical Length 488

13.1.1.5 Aspect Ratio and Critical Aspect Ratio 489

13.1.1.6 Single Element versus Collective 489

13.1.1.7 Collective Test to Measure Pull-Out 490

13.1.1.8 Interface and Interphase 490

13.1.1.9 Adhesion and Adherence 492

13.1.1.10 Practical & Theoretical Fibre/Matrix Adhesion 492

13.1.2 Terminology and Properties of Fibres and Matrices 492

13.1.2.1 Polymer Matrices 492

13.1.2.2 Natural Fibres 496

13.1.2.3 Regenerated Cellulose Fibres 497

13.2 Methods 503

13.2.1 Overview 503

13.2.2 Single Fibre/Single Fibre Bundle Tests 504

13.2.2.1 Pull-Out and Microbond Tests 504

13.2.2.2 Fragmentation Test 529

13.2.3 Composite Tests 534

13.2.3.1 Double-Notched Tensile Test 534

13.2.3.2 Iosipescu Shear Test 536

13.2.3.3 90° (Off-Axis) Tensile Test and 90° (Off-Axis) Bending Test 537

13.2.3.4 Short Beam Shear Test 538

13.3 Comparison of Data 539

13.4 Summary 543

Acknowledgements 545

References 545

Index 557