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Trace Elements in Soils

Peter Hooda (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-405-16037-7 April 2010 Wiley-Blackwell 616 Pages


Trace elements occur naturally in soils and some are essential nutrients for plant growth as well as human and animal health. However, at elevated levels, all trace elements become potentially toxic. Anthropogenic input of trace elements into the natural environment therefore poses a range of ecological and health problems.

As a result of their persistence and potential toxicity, trace elements continue to receive widespread scientific and legislative attention. Trace Elements in Soils reviews the latest research in the field, providing a comprehensive overview of the chemistry, analysis, fate and regulation of trace elements in soils, as well as remediation strategies for contaminated soil.

The book is divided into four sections:

Basic principles, processes, sampling and analytical aspects: presents an overview including general soil chemistry, soil sampling, analysis, fractionation and speciation.

Long-term issues, impacts and predictive modelling: reviews major sources of metal inputs, the impact on soil ecology, trace element deficient soils and chemical speciation modelling.

Bioavailability, risk assessment and remediation: discusses bioavailability, regulatory limits and cleanup technology for contaminated soils including phytoremediation and trace element immobilization.

Characteristics and behaviour of individual elements

Written as an authoritative guide for scientists working in soil science, geochemistry, environmental science and analytical chemistry, the book is also a valuable resource for professionals involved in land management, environmental planning, protection and regulation.

1. Introduction

Peter S. Hooda

2.Trace Elements: General Soil Chemistry, Principles and Processes

Filip M.G. Tack

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Distribution of trace elements in the soil

2.3 Chemical species

2.4 Sorption and desorption

2.5 Precipitation and dissolution

2.6 Mobilisation of trace elements

2.7 Transport

2.8 Plant uptake

2.9 Concluding remarks


3. Soil Sampling and Sample Preparation

Anthony C. Edwards

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Soil sampling

3.3 Errors associated with soil sampling and preparation

3.4. Overview of the current situation

3.5 Scale and variability

3.6 Conclusions


4. Analysis and Fractionation of Trace Elements in Soils

Gijis Du Laing

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Total Analysis

4.3. Fractionation of Trace Elements

4.4. Species-retaining and Species-selective Leaching Techniques

4.5. Equipment for Direct Speciation of Trace Elements in Soil

4.6. Conclusions


5. Fractionation and Speciation of Trace Elements in Soil Solution

Gijis Du Laing

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Soil Solution Sampling, Storage and Filtration

5.3. Particle Size Fractionation

5.4. Liquid-liquid Extraction

5.5. Ion Exchange Resins and Solid Phase Extraction

5.6. Derivatisation Techniques to Create Volatile Species

5.7. Chromatographic Separation of Trace Element Species

5.8. Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)

5.9. Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT)

5.10. Ion-selective Electrodes

5.11. Donnan Membrane Technique

5.12. Voltammetric Techniques

5.13. Microelectrodes and Microsensors

5.14. Models for Predicting Metal Speciation in Soil Solution

5.15. Conclusions


6. Long-Term Issues, Impacts And Predictive Modelling

Weiping Chen, Andrew C. Chang, Laosheng Wu, Albert L. Page and Bonjun Koo

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Biosolids-borne Trace Elements in Soils

6.3 Assessing Availability of Trace Elements in Biosolids-amended Soils

6.4 Long-Term Availability Pool Assessment through a Root Exudates-based Model

6.5 Conclusions


7. Fertilizer-borne Trace Element Contaminants in Soils

Samuel P. Stacey, Mike J. McLaughlin and Ganga Hettiarachchi

7.1 Introduction

7.2. Phosphatic Fertilisers

7.3. Micronutrient Fertilisers

7. 4. Long-term Accumulation of Fertilizer-borne Trace Element Contaminants

7.5. Trace Elemental Contaminant Transfer to Crops and Grazing Animals

7.6. Conclusions


8. Trace Metal Exposure and Effects on Soil Dwelling Species and their Communities

David J. Spurgeon

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Hazards and Consequences of Trace Metal Exposure

8.3. Routes of Exposure, Uptake and Detoxification

8.4. Conclusions


9. Trace Element Deficient Soils

Rainer Schulin, Annette Johnson, and Emmanuel Frossard

9.1 Introduction

9.2. The concept of trace element deficient soils

9.3. Methods to identify and map soil trace element deficiencies

9.4. Soil factors associated with trace element deficiencies

9.5. Treatment of soils deficient in trace elements


10. Application of Chemical Speciation Modelling to Studies on Toxic Element Behaviour in Soils

Les J. Evans, Sarah J. Barabash, David G. Lumsdon and Xueyuan Gu

10.1. Introduction

10.2. The structure of chemical speciation models

10.3. The species/component matrix

10.4. Aqueous Speciation Modeling

10.5. Surface Complexation Modeling to Mineral Surfaces

10.6. Surface Complexation Modelling to Soil Organic Matter

10.7. Discussion


Bioavailability, Risk Assessment and Remediation

11. Assessing Bioavailability of Soil Trace Elements

Peter S. Hooda

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Speciation, Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation – Definitions and Concepts

11.3. Bioavailability Assessment Approaches

11.4.Discussion and Conclusions


Bioavailability: Exposure, Dose and Risk Assessment

12. Assessing Bioavailability of Soil Trace Elements

Rupert L. Hough

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Hazard Identification

12.3. Exposure Assessment

12.4. Dose-Response

12.5. Risk Characterisation

12.6 Assessment of mixtures and disparate risks

12.7 Conclusions


13. Regulatory Limits for Trace Elements in Soils

Graham Merrington, Sohel Saikat and Albania Grosso

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Derivation of regulatory limits for trace elements

13.3. National and international initiatives in setting limit values

13.4. Forward look

13.5. Conclusions

14 Phytoremediation of Soil Trace ElementsRufus L. Chaney, C. Leigh Broadhurst and Tiziana Centofanti

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Nature of soil contamination where phytoextraction may be applied

14.3. Need for metal tolerant hyperaccumulators for practical phytoextraction

14.4. Phytoremediation strategies – applications and limitations

14.5. Phytostabilization of Zn-Pb, Cu, or Ni mine waste or smelter contaminated soils

14.6. Recovery of elements from phytoextraction biomass

14.7. Risks to wildlife during phytoextraction operations?

14.8 Conclusions


15. Trace Element Immobilization in Soil Using Amendments

Jurate Kumpiene

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Soil Amendments for Trace Element Immobilization

15.3 Method Acceptance

15.4 Concluding remarks


Characteristics and Behaviour of Individual Elements

16. Arsenic and Antimony

Yuji Arai

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Geogenic Occurrence

16.3. Sources of Soil Contamination

16.4. Chemical Behaviour in Soils

16.5 Arsenic retention in soils

16.6 Risks from As and Sb in Soils

16.7 Conclusions and Future Research Needs


17. Cadmium and Zinc

Rufus L. Chaney

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Geogenic occurrence and sources of soil contamination

17.3. Chemical behavior in soils

17.4. Plant accumulation of soil Cd and Zn

17.5. Risk implications for Cd in soil amendments

17.6. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn in relation to food-chain Cd risk

17.7. Food-chain Zn issues


18. Copper and Lead

Rupert L. Hough

18.1 Introduction

18.2. Copper

18.3. Lead

18.4. Risks from copper and lead

18.5 Concluding remarks


19. Chromium, Cobalt and Nickel

Yibing Ma and Peter S. Hooda

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Geogenic Occurrences

19.3. Sources of Soil Contamination

19.4. Chemical Behaviour in Soils

19.5. Environmental and Human Heath Risks

19.6. Concluding Remarks


20. Manganese and Selenium

Zhenli L. He, Jiali Shentu, and Xiao E. Yang

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Concentrations and Sources of Mn and Se in soils

20.3. Chemical Behavior of Mn and Se in soils

20.4. Effects on Plant, Animal and human Health


21. Tin and Mercury

Martin J. Clifford, Gavin M. Hilson and Mark E. Hodson

20.1. Introduction

21.2. Geogenic Occurrence

21.3. Sources of Soil Contamination

21.4. Chemical Behaviour in Soils

21.5. Risks from Tin and Mercury in Soils


22. Molybdenum, Silver, Thallium,and Vanadium

Les J. Evans and Sarah J. Barabash

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Molybdenum

22.3. Silver

22.4. Thallium

22.5. Vanadium

22.6. Environmental and Human Health Risks


23. Gold and Uranium

Ian D. Pulford

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Geogenic Occurrence

23.3. Soil Contamination

23.4. Chemical Behaviour in Soils

23.5. Risks from Gold and Uranium in Soils

23.6. Concluding Comments


24. Platinum Group Elements in Soil

F. Zereini and C.L.S. Wiseman

24.1. Introduction

24.2. Sources of PGE in soils

24.3. Emissions, Depositional Behavior and Concentrations in Soils

24.4. Geochemical Behaviour in Soils

24.5. Bioavailability

24.6. Conclusions


"This book is very suitable for soil scientists involved in soil contamination, but also for research chemists, geochemists, agronomists, environmental scientists, ecotoxicologists, and professionals who deal with contaminated soils." (Anal Bioanal Chem, February 2011)