Underwater Archaeology: The NAS Guide to Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition
List of plates.
1. The NAS Handbook – why it was written.
2. Underwater archaeology.
What is archaeology?.
What is archaeology under water?.
What is not archaeology under water?.
Closely related and complementary approaches (ethnography and experimental archaeology).
3. Getting involved in underwater and foreshore archaeology.
4. Basic principles – making the most of the clues.
The importance of underwater sites.
The range of evidence on an archaeological site.
Links between categories of evidence.
Using the evidence.
Environment and site-formation processes.
The deterioration of wood.
Culture and site-formation processes.
5. Project planning.
The project design.
6. Safety on archaeological sites under water and on the foreshore.
Diving project plan.
Codes of practice.
Control of diving operations.
Working under water.
Potential diving problems and solutions.
Safety during excavation.
Inter-tidal site safety.
7. International and national laws relating to archaeology under water.
Jurisdiction – where do the laws apply?.
The regime in international waters.
International salvage law.
Underwater cultural heritage and salvage law.
Ownership of underwater cultural heritage.
Abandonment of ownership.
8. Archaeological recording.
The need for recording.
Planning the recording: what to record.
Recording information on site.
Recording environmental evidence.
Recording survey results.
Recording plans and sections.
Recording photographic results.
Identifying archaeological material.
Tags and labelling.
Storing the information.
Computing options and issues.
Geographical information systems.
Explaining, documenting and supervising the system.
9. Historical research.
Types of evidence.
Locating primary sources.
Methods of research.
Underwater photographic techniques.
Mosaics – photo or video.
Methods of position-fixing.
12. Underwater search methods.
Diver search methods.
13. Geophysical and remote-sensing surveys.
Search patterns, navigation and positioning.
Multibeam swath systems.
Submersibles: ROVs and AUVs.
14. Underwater survey.
Types of survey.
An initial sketch.
Setting up a baseline/control points.
Installing survey points.
The principles of survey.
Survey using tape-measures, grids and drafting film.
Vertical control (height/depth).
Processing measurements and drawing up the site-plan.
Three-dimensional computer-based survey.
Acoustic positioning systems.
Positioning the site in the real world.
15. Destructive investigative techniques.
16. Archaeological conservation and first-aid for finds.
Underwater burial environments.
Materials degradation and post-excavation deterioration.
Principal risks to finds during and after recovery.
Principles and procedures for first-aid for underwater finds.
Lifting, handling and transportation.
Approaches to packing and storage.
Sampling and analysis.
Holding and pre-conservation treatment solutions.
X-radiography and facilities.
Health and safety.
17. Site monitoring and protection.
18. Archaeological illustration.
Basic drawing equipment.
Drawing archaeological material.
Recording ‘by eye’.
Recording decoration and surface detail.
Recording constructional and other detail.
Post-fieldwork photography and laser scanning.
Presenting a range of complex information.
19. Post-fieldwork analysis and archiving.
Handling material and keeping records.
Post-fieldwork treatment of survey work.
Interpretation and gathering supporting evidence from other sources.
Producing an archaeological archive.
20. Presenting, publicizing and publishing archaeological work.
The importance of publicizing (where and when).
Identifying and satisfying an audience.
Methods of presentation.
Writing reports and publications.
A significant achievement and contribution.
Appendix 1: anchor recording.
Appendix 2: guns.
The importance of sea-bed recording.
Identification of material.
Classification by methods of loading.
Classification by shape.
Inscriptions and decoration.
Projectiles, charges and tampions.
Recording and illustrating guns.
Appendix 3: NAS training programme.
An introduction to foreshore and underwater archaeology.
NAS Part I: certificate in foreshore and underwater archaeology.
NAS Part II: intermediate certificate in foreshore and underwater archaeology.
NAS Part III: advanced certificate in foreshore and underwater archaeology.
NAS Part IV: diploma in foreshore and underwater archaeology.
References and further reading.
"It is an excellent addition to the NAS training program.... I would expect the text will be picked up by most institutions and non-academic groups involved in the teaching and general practice of maritime archaeology." (SAS Bulletin, November 2009)
"There is much useful stuff here." (British Archaeology, January 2009)
"The text and graphics have been updated, resulting in this long-awaited second edition of what is popularly known as 'The NAS (Nautical Archaeology Society) Handbook'. The second edition includes several new chapters covering topics such as photography, legislation and conservation. Additional chapters reflect significant developments or new approaches, particularly with respect to project planning, safety on archaeological sites, historic research, monitoring and maintenance and geophysics. Each individual component of this book was written by an expert in his/her field." (Ocean News & Technology, November 2008)
"This book will enable readers to make the most of their involvement with the rich underwater heritage that helped shape the world in which we live, and do so in a responsible way." (Institute of Nautical Archaeology Quarterly, Summer 2008)
- Long awaited second edition of what is popularly referred to as the NAS Handbook
- Provides a practical guide to underwater archaeology: how to get involved, basic principles, essential techniques, project planning and execution, publishing and presenting
- Fully illustrated with over 100 drawings and new color graphics
- New chapters on geophysics, historical research, photography and video, monitoring and maintenance and conservation