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Wind Power in Power Systems, 2nd Edition

Thomas Ackermann (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-97416-2 April 2012 1120 Pages



The second edition of the highly acclaimed Wind Power in Power Systems has been thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest challenges associated with increasing wind power penetration levels. Since its first release, practical experiences with high wind power penetration levels have significantly increased. This book presents an overview of the lessons learned in integrating wind power into power systems and provides an outlook of the relevant issues and solutions to allow even higher wind power penetration levels. This includes the development of standard wind turbine simulation models. This extensive update has 23 brand new chapters in cutting-edge areas including offshore wind farms and storage options, performance validation and certification for grid codes, and the provision of reactive power and voltage control from wind power plants. 

Key features:

  • Offers an international perspective on integrating a high penetration of wind power into the power system, from basic network interconnection to industry deregulation;
  • Outlines the methodology and results of European and North American large-scale grid integration studies;
  • Extensive practical experience from wind power and power system experts and transmission systems operators in Germany, Denmark, Spain, UK, Ireland, USA, China and New Zealand;
  • Presents various wind turbine designs from the electrical perspective and models for their simulation, and discusses industry standards and world-wide grid codes, along with power quality issues;
  • Considers concepts to increase penetration of wind power in power systems, from wind turbine, power plant and power system redesign to smart grid and storage solutions.

Carefully edited for a highly coherent structure, this work remains an essential reference for power system engineers, transmission and distribution network operator and planner, wind turbine designers, wind project developers and wind energy consultants dealing with the integration of wind power into the distribution or transmission network. Up-to-date and comprehensive, it is also useful for graduate students, researchers, regulation authorities, and policy makers who work in the area of wind power and need to understand the relevant power system integration issues.

Contributors xxxi

Abbreviations xlvii

Notation lvii

1 Introduction 1
Thomas Ackermann

2 Preface: Wind Power Myths Debunked 7
Michael Milligan, Kevin Porter, Edgar DeMeo, Paul Denholm, Hannele Holttinen, Brendan Kirby, Nicholas Miller, Andrew Mills, Mark O’Malley, Matthew Schuerger and Lennart Soder


3 Historical Development and Current Status of Wind Power 23
Thomas Ackermann

4 Wind Power in Power Systems: An Introduction 47
Lennart Söder and Thomas Ackermann

5 Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines 73
Anca D. Hansen

6 Power System Impacts of Wind Power 105
Hannele Holttinen and Ritva Hirvonen

7 The Value of Wind Power 131
Lennart Söder


8 Power Quality Standards for Wind Turbines 159
John Olav Tande

9 Measurement of Electrical Characteristics 175
Fritz Santjer

10 Practical Experience with Power Quality and Wind Power 195
Ake Larsson

11 Technical Regulations for the Interconnection of Wind Power Plants to the Power System 209
Julija Matevosyan, Sigrid M. Bolik and Thomas Ackermann

12 Performance Validation and Certification for Grid Codes 241
Martin Schellschmidt, Stephan Adloff and Markus Fischer


13 Electrical Design of a Wind Power Plant 259
Nicholas Miller, Reigh Walling and Richard Piwko

14 Transmission Systems for Offshore Wind Power Plants and Operation Planning Strategies for Offshore Power Systems 293
Thomas Ackermann, Antje Orths and Krzysztof Rudion

15 New Cable Systems for Offshore Wind Power Plants 329
Heinrich Brakelmann and Jan Bruügmann

16 New Control Concept for Offshore Wind Power Plants: Constant-Speed Turbines on a Grid with Variable Frequency 345
Eckehard Tröster


17 Overview of Integration Studies – Methodologies and Results 363
Hannele Holttinen

18 Two Reference Studies on European Transmission for Wind Integration: TradeWind and EWIS 387
Frans Van Hulle

19 Transmission Planning for Wind Energy in the USA: Status and Prospects 413
J. Charles Smith, Dale Osborn, Richard Piwko, Robert Zavadil, Brian Parsons, Lynn Coles, David Hawkins, Warren Lasher and Bradley Nickell

20 Wind Power in Areas with Limited Transmission Capacity 439
Julija Matevosyan

21 Wind Power and Storage 465
Aidan Tuohy and Mark O'Malley

22 Economic Aspects of Wind Power in Power Systems 489
Poul Erik Morthorst and Thomas Ackermann


23 Wind Power in the Danish Power System 519
Antje G. Orths and Peter Børre Eriksen

24 Wind Power in the German Network: Present Status and Future Challenges of Maintaining Quality of Supply 549
Matthias Luther and Wilhelm Winter

25 Wind Integration in Portugal
Ana Estanqueiro

26 Wind Power Integration Experience in Spain 595
Juan Ma. Rodríguez García, Olivia Alonso García and Miguel de la Torre Rodríguez

27 Maximizing Renewable Generation on the Power System of Ireland and Northern Ireland 623
Jonathan O'Sullivan

28 Wind Power in the Power System in Texas 649
Henry Durrwachter and Warren Lasher

29 Wind Power in the New Zealand Power System 667
Ray Brown

30 Large-Scale Wind Power Integration into the Chinese Power System 689
Yongning Chi, Zhen Wang, Yan Li and Weisheng Wang

31 Isolated Systems with Wind Power 707
E. Ian Baring-Gould and Per Lundsager

32 Wind Farms in Weak Power Networks in India 739
Poul Sørensen

33 Wind Power Prediction 753
Bernhard Ernst


34 Introduction to the Modelling of Wind Turbines 769
Hans Knudsen and Jørgen Nygard Nielsen

35 A Generic Wind Power Plant Model 799
Abraham Ellis, Yuriy Kazachkov, Juan Sanchez-Gasca, Pouyan Pourbeik, Eduard Muljadi, Michael Behnke, Jens Fortmann and Slavomir Seman

36 Reduced-Order Modelling of Wind Turbines 821
Katherine Elkington, J.G. (Han) Slootweg, Mehrdad Ghandhari and Wil L. Kling

37 High-Order Models of Doubly Fed Induction Generators 849
Eva Centeno López and Jonas Persson

38 Full-Scale Verification of Dynamic Wind Turbine Models 865
Vladislav Akhmatov

39 Impacts of Wind Power on Power System Stability 891
Eknath Vittal, Andrew Keane, J.G. Slootweg and Wil Kling

40 Modelling of Large Wind Power Plants
Vladislav Akhmatov and Björn Andressen

Part G Future Issues

41 Benefits of Active Management of Distribution Systems 

42 Wind Power and the Smart Grid 

43 Reactive Power Capability and Voltage Control with Wind Turbines 

44 Hydrogen as a Means of Transporting and Balancing Wind Power Production 999
Robert Steinberger-Wilckens

Index 1019

“...a very well-edited update to the previous edition, which was already one of the more thorough overviews of wind integration issues.”  (IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, 1 November 2013)

Wind in Power Systems More information about the book can be found at