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Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream

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Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream

Description

A comprehensive review of the current status and challenges for natural gas and shale gas production, treatment and monetization technologies 

Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream presents an international perspective on the production and monetization of shale gas and natural gas. The authors review techno-economic assessments of the midstream and downstream natural gas processing technologies.

Comprehensive in scope, the text offers insight into the current status and the challenges facing the advancement of the midstream natural gas treatments. Treatments covered include gas sweeting processes, sulfur recovery units, gas dehydration and natural gas pipeline transportation.

The authors highlight the downstream processes including physical treatment and chemical conversion of both direct and indirect conversion. The book also contains an important overview of natural gas monetization processes and the potential for shale gas to play a role in the future of the energy market, specifically for the production of ultra-clean fuels and value-added chemicals. This vital resource:

  • Provides fundamental chemical engineering aspects of natural gas technologies
  • Covers topics related to upstream, midstream and downstream natural gas treatment and processing
  • Contains well-integrated coverage of several technologies and processes for treatment and production of natural gas
  • Highlights the economic factors and risks facing the monetization technologies
  • Discusses supply chain, environmental and safety issues associated with the emerging shale gas industry
  • Identifies future trends in educational and research opportunities, directions and emerging opportunities in natural gas monetization
  • Includes contributions from leading researchers in academia and industry

Written for Industrial scientists, academic researchers and government agencies working on developing and sustaining state-of-the-art technologies in gas and fuels production and processing, Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream provides a broad overview of the current status and challenges for natural gas production, treatment and monetization technologies.

List of Contributors xix

About the Editors xxv

Preface xxvii

1 Introduction to Natural Gas Monetization 1
Nimir O. Elbashir

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Natural Gas Chain 2

1.3 Monetization Routes for Natural Gas 4

1.4 Natural Gas Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels 9

1.5 Summary 13

Acknowledgment 13

References 13

2 Techno-Economic Analyses and Policy Implications of Environmental Remediation of Shale GasWells in the Barnett Shales 15
Rasha Hasaneen, Andrew Avalos, Nathan Sibley, and Mohammed Shammaa

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Shale Gas Operations 18

2.3 The Barnett Shale 22

2.4 Environmental Remediation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Using Natural Gas as a Fuel 22

2.5 Environmental Remediation ofWater and Seismic Impacts 24

2.6 Theoretical Calculations 28

2.7 Results and Discussion 35

2.8 Opportunities for Future Research 49

References 50

3 ThermodynamicModeling of Natural Gas and Gas Condensate Mixtures 57
Epaminondas Voutsas, Nefeli Novak, Vasiliki Louli, Georgia Pappa, Eirini Petropoulou, Christos Boukouvalas, Eleni Panteli, and Stathis Skouras

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Thermodynamic Models 61

3.3 Prediction of Natural Gas Dew Points 64

3.4 Prediction of Dew Points and Liquid Dropout in Gas Condensates 70

3.5 Case Study: Simulation of a Topside Offshore Process 75

3.6 Concluding Remarks 81

References 82

4 CO2 Injection in Coal Formations for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration 89
Ahmed Farid Ibrahim and Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din

4.1 Coalbed Characteristics 89

4.2 Adsorption Isotherm Behavior 91

4.3 CoalWettability 95

4.4 CO2 Injectivity 101

4.5 Pilot Field Tests 106

4.6 Conclusions 108

References 108

5 Fluid Flow: Basics 113
Paul A. Nelson, Todd J.Willman, and Vinay Gadekar

5.1 Introduction 113

5.2 Thermodynamics of Fluids 116

5.3 Fundamental Equations of Fluid Mechanics 121

5.4 Incompressible Pipeline Flow 126

5.5 Laminar Flow 130

5.6 Compressible Pipeline Flow 132

5.7 Comparison with Crane Handbook 139

References 142

6 Fluid Flow: Advanced Topics 143
Paul A. Nelson,MoyeWicks III, Todd J.Willman, and Vinay Gadekar

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Notation 143

6.3 Piping Networks 145

6.4 Meters 152

6.5 Control Valves 159

6.6 Two-Phase Gas-Liquid Flow 161

References 171

7 Use of Process Simulators Upstream Through Midstream 173
Justin C. Slagle

7.1 Introduction 173

7.2 Upstream 174

7.3 Midstream 183

7.4 Going Further 192

Acknowledgement 196

References 196

8 Optimization of Natural Gas Network Operation under Uncertainty 197
Emmanuel Ogbe, Ali Elkamel,Michael Fowler, and Ali Almansoori

8.1 Introduction 198

8.2 Literature Review 199

8.3 Natural Gas Supply Chains 200

8.4 Optimization Model 202

8.5 Computation Study 208

8.6 Results and Discussion 209

8.7 Conclusions and Recommendations 212

References 213

Appendix 215

8.A.1 Stochastic Model for the Sources 216

8.A.2 Stochastic Model for Mixing Stations 216

8.A.3 Stochastic Model for End Users 217

8.A.4 Stochastic Pipeline Performance Model 217

8.A.5 Stochastic Compression Performance Model 217

9 A Multicriteria Optimization Approach to the Synthesis of Shale Gas Monetization Supply Chains 219
Ahmad Al-Douri, Debalina Sengupta, andMahmoud M. El-Halwagi

9.1 Introduction 219

9.2 Methodology 220

9.3 Case Study 221

9.4 Case Study Results 224

9.4.1 Feedstock 224

9.5 Conclusion 232

References 232

10 Study for the Optimal Operation of Natural Gas Liquid Recovery and Natural Gas Production 235
MozammelMazumder and Qiang Xu

10.1 Introduction 235

10.2 Methodology Framework 237

10.3 New Process Design for NGL Recovery 238

10.4 Thermodynamic Analysis for Propane Refrigeration System 244

10.5 Optimization for Natural Gas Liquefaction 245

10.6 Conclusion 254

Acknowledgements 254

Abbreviations 254

Nomenclature 255

References 256

11 Modeling and Optimization of Natural Gas Processing and Production Networks 259
Saad A. Al-Sobhi,Munawar A. Shaik, Ali Elkamel, and Fatih S. Erenay

11.1 Introduction 259

11.2 Background and Process Description 260

11.3 Simulation of Natural Gas Processing and Production Network 265

11.4 LP Model for Natural Gas Processing and Production Network 274

11.5 MILP Model for Design and Synthesis of Natural Gas Upstream Processing Network 280

11.6 MILP Model for Design and Synthesis of Natural Gas Production Network 288

11.7 Sustainability Assessment of Natural Gas Network 296

11.7.1 Case Study 1 297

11.7.2 Case Study 2 298

11.7.3 Case Study 3 298

11.8 Conclusion 300

References 300

12 Process Safety in Natural Gas Industries 305
Monir Ahammad and M. SamMannan

12.1 Introduction 305

12.2 Incident History 306

12.3 Process Safety Methods 309

12.4 Equipment and Plant Reliability 312

12.5 Facility Siting and Layout Optimization 315

12.6 Relief System Design 323

12.7 Toxic and Heavy Gas Dispersion 324

12.8 Fire and Explosion 326

12.9 Effective Mitigation System 329

12.10 Regulatory Program and Management Systems for Process Safety and Risks 332

12.11 Concluding Remarks 335

Nomenclature 336

References 338

13 ThermodynamicModeling of Relevance to Natural Gas Processing 341
Georgios M. Kontogeorgis and Eirini Karakatsani

13.1 Introduction to the Problem 341

13.2 The Models 343

13.3 Systems Studied and Selected Results: Part 1. No Chemicals 348

13.4 Systems Studied and Selected Results: Part 2.With Chemicals 360

13.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 372

Nomenclature 374

Acknowledgment 376

References 376

14 Light Alkane Aromatization: Efficient use of Natural Gas 379
Swarom R. Kanitkar and James J. Spivey

14.1 Introduction 379

14.2 Aromatization of Light Alkanes 381

14.3 Future Perspective 394

References 397

15 Techno-Economic Analysis of Monetizing Shale Gas to Butadiene 403
Ecem Özinan andMahmoud M. El-Halwagi

15.1 Introduction 403

15.2 Process Description 404

15.3 Techno-Economic Analysis 406

15.4 Conclusions 406

References 411

16 Fractionation of the Gas-to-Liquid Diesel Fuels for Production of On-Specification Diesel and Value-Added Chemicals 413
Mostafa Shahin, Shaik Afzal, and Nimir O. Elbashir

16.1 Introduction 413

16.2 Experimental Study to Measure Properties of GTL Diesel for Different Specifications 416

16.3 Experimental Study Results and Discussion 420

16.4 MathematicalModels for Properties-Composition Relationship 427

16.5 Summary and Conclusion 434

References 437

17 An Energy Integrated Approach to Design a Supercritical Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products Separation and Solvent Recovery System 439
Tala Katbeh, Nimir O. Elbashir, and Mahmoud El-Halwagi

17.1 Introduction 439

17.1.1 Block 1: Syngas Generation (Natural Gas Reformer) 439

17.1.2 Block 2: Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis 440

17.1.2.1 Conventional FT Reactors 441

17.1.3 Introduction on the Utilization of Supercritical Fluids in the FT Synthesis 442

17.1.3.1 Block 3: Products Upgrading 442

17.2 Approach and Methodology 444

17.2.1 The FT Reactor Conditions 445

17.2.2 The Process Design Approach 445

17.3 Results and Discussion 447

17.3.1 Scenario 1: Separation of the Heavy Components First 447

17.3.2 Alternate Separation Design for Scenario 1 450

17.3.3 Scenario 2: Separation of theWater First 452

17.3.4 Scenario 3: Separation of the Vapor and Liquid Components and Use of 3-phase Separator to RecoverWater, Solvent, and Syngas 455

17.4 Conclusion 460

Acknowledgements 461

References 461

18 Multi-Scale Models for the Prediction of Microscopic Structure and Physical Properties of Chemical Systems Related to Natural Gas Technology 463
Konstantinos D. Papavasileiou, Manolis Vasileiadis, Vasileios K.Michalis, Loukas D. Peristeras, and Ioannis G. Economou

18.1 Introduction 463

18.2 Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation:Modeling Gas Hydrates 467

18.3 Modeling Porous Media in Separation and Storage Procedures 470

18.4 Molecular Simulation of Downstream Natural Gas Processing:The GTL Technology 476

18.5 Future Outlook 485

List of Abbreviations 487

Acknowledgements 488

References 488

19 Natural Gas to Acetylene (GTA)/Ethylene (GTE)/Liquid Fuels (GTL) The Synfuels International, Inc. Process 499
Kenneth R. Hall, Joel G. Cantrell, and Ben R.Weber, Jr

19.1 Introduction 499

19.2 Additive and Subtractive Processes 500

19.3 The Synfuels Process 501

19.4 Pilot Plant 503

19.5 Location, Location, Location 505

19.6 Biofuels 505

19.7 Conclusion 507

20 Natural-Gas-Based SOFC in Distributed Electricity Generation:Modeling and Control 509
Gerald S. Ogumerem, Nikolaos A. Diangelakis, and Efstratios N. Pistikopoulos

20.1 Introduction 509

20.2 MathematicalModel 513

20.3 Simulation 517

20.4 MultiparametricModel Predictive Control (mpMPC) 519

20.5 Closed-Loop Validation and Results 523

20.6 Conclusion 523

References 524

21 Design of Synthetic Jet Fuel Using Multivariate Statistical Methods 527
RajibMukherjee, Noof Abdalla, NasrMohamed,Marwan ElWash, Nimir O. Elbashir, and MahmoudM. El-Halwagi

21.1 Introduction 527

21.2 Methodology 529

21.3 Results and Discussions 534

21.4 Conclusions 543

Acknowledgements 543

References 543

Index 545