About the Author
ROLAND A. FLECK, PHD, FRCPath, FRMS, is a Professor in Ultrastructural Imaging and Director of the Centre for Ultrastructural Imaging at King's College London. Having specialised in basic research into cellular injury at low temperatures and during cryo-preservation regimes he has developed specialist knowledge of freeze fracture/freeze etch preparation of tissues and wider cryo-microscopic techniques. As director of the Centre for Ultrastructural Imaging he supports advanced three dimensional studies of cells and tissues by both conventional room temperature and cryo electron microscopy. He is a visiting Professor of the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen and Professor of the UNESCO Chair in Cryobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
BRUNO M. HUMBEL, Dr. sc. nat. ETH, is head of the Imaging Section at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna son, Okinawa, Japan. He is awarded a research professorship at Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan. He got his PhD at the Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, with Prof. Hans Moor and Dr. Martin Müller, both pioneers in cryo-electron microscopy (high-pressure freezing, freeze-fracturing, freeze-substitution and low-temperature embedding, cryo-SEM, cryo-sectioning). His research focuses on sample preparation for optimal, life-like imaging of biological objects in the electron microscope. The main interests are preparation methods based on cryo-fixation applied in Cell Biology. From here, hybrid follow-up methods like freeze-substitution or freeze-fracturing are used. He is also involved in immunolabelling technology, e.g., ultra-small gold particles and has been working on techniques for correlative microscopy and volume microscopy for a couple of years. He teaches cryo-techniques and immunolabelling and correlative microscopy in international workshops and has professional affiliations with Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China as a distinguished professor and co-director of the Center of Cryo-Electron Microscopy and with the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, as a FAPEMIG visiting professor at the Centro de Microscopia da UFMG.