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Electronic Music Machines: The New Musical Instruments

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Electronic Music Machines: The New Musical Instruments

Jean-Michel Reveillac

ISBN: 978-1-119-61810-2 April 2019 Wiley-ISTE 382 Pages

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Description

Since 1960, with the advent of musical electronics, composers and musicians have been using ever more sophisticated machines to create sonic material that presents innovation, color and new styles: electro-acoustic, electro, house, techno, etc. music. The music of Pierre Henry, Kraftwerk, Pink Floyd, Daft Punk and many others has introduced new sounds, improbable rhythms and a unique approach to composition and notation.

Electronic machines have become essential: they have built and influenced the music of the most recent decades and set the trend for future productions.

This book explores the theory and practice related to the different machines which constitute the universe of musical electronics, omitting synthesizers which are treated in other works. Sequencers, drum machines, samplers, groove machines and vocoders from 1960 to today are studied in their historical, physical and theoretical context. More detailed approaches to the Elektron Octatrack sequencer-sampler and the Korg Electribe 2 groove machine are also included.

 

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Introduction xvii

Chapter 1. Electronic Music 1

1.1. Musique concrète 1

1.2. The beginnings of electronic music 3

1.3. Electroacoustic music 3

1.4. Acousmatic music 4

1.5. And much, much more 6

1.6. Maturity 6

1.7. Different paths to music 6

1.8. Today and tomorrow 10

1.9. Electronic music and counter-culturalism 11

1.10. Final remarks 14

Chapter 2. When Revolution Holds Us in Its Grasp 15

2.1. From analog to digital 15

2.2. Popular music and electronic music 23

2.2.1. New wave 25

2.2.2. House music 26

2.2.3. Techno 28

2.2.4. New beat 29

2.2.5. Acid house 30

2.2.6. Acid jazz 32

2.2.7. Ambient 33

2.2.8. Hip-hop and rap 35

2.2.9. Trance 35

2.2.10. Electro or contemporary electro 36

2.3. Final remarks 37

Chapter 3. The MIDI Standard 41

3.1. History 41

3.2. How MIDI works 42

3.2.1. The hardware level 42

3.2.2. The software level 45

3.3. Examples of MIDI transmission 49

3.3.1. Note-on/note-off messages 49

3.3.2. Program change message 50

3.4. The MIDI implementation chart 51

3.5. The General MIDI standard 52

3.5.1. Specifications 52

3.6. The General MIDI 2 standard 54

3.7. The GS format 54

3.8. The XG format 55

3.9. The structure of a MIDI file 56

3.9.1. Header chunks 56

3.9.2. Track chunks 57

3.9.3. Example of a MIDI file 64

3.10. MIDI devices 67

3.10.1. MIDI boxes, mergers, and patchers 67

3.10.2. Musical instruments 69

3.10.3. Studio hardware 70

3.10.4. MIDI to computer 71

3.11. Conclusion 73

Chapter 4. Sequencers 75

4.1. Mechanical and electrical machines 75

4.1.1. Music boxes 76

4.1.2. Mechanical pianos 77

4.1.3. Barrel organs 80

4.1.4. Fairground organs 82

4.2. Analog sequencers 83

4.3. Digital sequencers 86

4.4. Software sequencers 88

4.5. Final remarks 91

Chapter 5. Drum Machines 93

5.1. On the subject of electromechanical rhythm 93

5.2. Drum machines with presets 97

5.3. Programmable drum machines 103

5.4. The MIDI age 106

5.5. Drum machines with sampled sounds 107

5.6. Rhythms, software, and computers 111

5.7. Final remarks 115

Chapter 6. Samplers 117

6.1. History of samplers 117

6.1.1. Basic principles 118

6.1.2. The arrival of the Mellotron 119

6.1.3. Samplers 123

6.1.4. Software samplers 133

6.2. History of musical styles 139

6.3. Architecture and principles 142

6.4. Final remarks 144

Chapter 7. Groove Machines 147

7.1. Structure 147

7.2. Famous groove machines 148

7.2.1. E-mu SP12 (1985) 149

7.2.2. AKAI MPC-60 (1988) 150

7.2.3. Roland MC-303 (1996) 151

7.2.4. AKAI MPC 2000XL (1999) 152

7.2.5. Roland MC-909 (2003) 153

7.2.6. Elektron Octatrack DPS 1 (2011) 155

7.2.7. Korg Electribe 2 (2014) and Korg Electribe Sampler (2015) 156

7.2.8. Novation Circuit (2015) 158

7.2.9. Teenage Electronics Pocket Operator PO-32 (2017) 159

7.3. Software groove machines 160

7.3.1. Image Line Groove Machine 162

7.3.2. Propellerhead Reason 163

7.3.3. Ableton Live 169

7.4. Controllers and software 172

7.4.1. Native Instruments Maschine (2009) 172

7.4.2. Roland MPC Studio Black (2017) 174

7.5. iGroove machines 176

7.6. Final remarks 176

Chapter 8. Vocoders 179

8.1. History 179

8.2. Working principle of the vocoder 183

8.3. Machines and equipment 184

8.3.1. EMS Vocoder 2000 184

8.3.2. EMS Vocoder 5000 185

8.3.3. EMS Vocoder 3000 185

8.3.4. Roland VP-330 186

8.3.5. Korg VC-10 187

8.3.6. Moog Vocoder 188

8.3.7. Roland SVC-350 188

8.3.8. Electrix Warp Factory 189

8.3.9. Korg MS2000 189

8.3.10. Microkorg 190

8.3.11. Roland VP-550 191

8.3.12. The Music and More VF11 192

8.3.13. Novation Mininova 192

8.3.14. Digitech Talker 193

8.3.15. Electro-Harmonix V256 194

8.3.16. A few more unusual examples 194

8.4. Software vocoders 195

8.5. One step further 196

8.5.1. Talkbox 196

8.5.2. Auto-Tune 198

8.6. Final remarks 199

Chapter 9. Octatrack: Maintenance, Repairs, and Tips 201

9.1. Updating the software 201

9.1.1. Updating the operating system 203

9.2. Testing the OT 206

9.2.1. Testing the push buttons 207

9.2.2. Testing the dials 210

9.2.3. Testing the x-fader 211

9.2.4. Analysis and results 211

9.3. Hardware repairs 211

9.3.1. Opening up the OT 212

9.3.2. Replacing the push buttons 215

9.3.3. Replacing the battery 220

9.3.4. Replacing the x-fader 222

9.3.5. Replacing an incremental encoder 225

9.4. Final remarks 228

Chapter 10. Octatrack: MIDI Sequences and Arpeggios 229

10.1. Setup and configuration 229

10.1.1. Connections and software settings 229

10.1.2. Creating a new project 231

10.1.3. Creating a THRU device (machine) 231

10.1.4. Setting up the MIDI connection between the OT and the instrument 232

10.2. Creating a MIDI sequence using triggers 234

10.2.1. MIDI track 234

10.2.2. Creating a musical sequence 235

10.2.3. A multi-page sequence 238

10.3. Creating a sequence with the arpeggiator 240

10.3.1. Presentation of the arpeggiator 241

10.3.2. A simple arpeggio 242

10.3.3. Defining an arpeggio graphically 244

10.3.4. More complex arpeggios 246

10.3.5. Triggers in chromatic mode 247

10.3.6. Saving a MIDI sequence from an external instrument 248

10.4. Creating a MIDI sequence with a drum machine 251

10.5. MIDI sequences, rhythms, and CC codes 255

Chapter 11. Korg Electribe: Maintenance and Hardware Tips 263

11.1. Overview 263

11.1.1. Electribe 2 264

11.1.2. Electribe Sampler 266

11.2. MIDI cables 267

11.2.1. Male 3.5 mm jack to female 5-pin DIN adapter 267

11.2.2. Male 3.5 mm jack to male 5-pin DIN cable 268

11.3. Updating the operating system 269

11.4. Electribe 2 to Electribe Sampler 272

11.4.1. Migrating to the Electribe Sampler 274

11.4.2. Reverting to the Electribe 2 276

11.4.3. Downgrading the Electribe 277

11.4.4. Editing the operating system files 277

11.4.5. Major operating system versions of the Electribe 2 280

11.5. Conclusion 280

Chapter 12. Korg Electribe: Software Tips 281

12.1. Menu tree of the Electribe 2 and the Electribe Sampler 281

12.2. Shortcuts 295

12.3. Using the audio input 295

12.3.1. Through the Electribe 296

12.3.2. Saving a carrier pattern 297

12.3.3. Filtering and applying effects 300

12.3.4. Sending commands to the synthesizer using triggers 302

12.3.5. Sequencer, synthesizer, filters, and effects 304

12.4. Extra tips 305

12.4.1. Octave switching 305

12.4.2. Viewing the current settings of a PART 305

12.4.3. Controlling two different synthesizers from the MIDI out 305

12.5. Final remarks 306

Conclusion 307

Appendices 309

Appendix 1. CV/Gate 311

Appendix 2. Digital Inputs/Outputs 319

Appendix 3. The General MIDI (GM) Standard 329

Appendix 4. Plugins 333

Appendix 5. Control and MIDI Dump Software 335

Bibliography 341

Index 349