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Glucose Syrups: Technology and Applications



Glucose Syrups: Technology and Applications

Peter Hull

ISBN: 978-1-444-31475-5 September 2011 Wiley-Blackwell 392 Pages

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Glucose syrups (commonly known as corn syrups in North America) are derived from starch sources such as maize, wheat and potatoes. Offering alternative functional properties to sugar as well as economic benefits, glucose syrups are extremely versatile sweeteners, and are widely used in food manufacturing and other industries. They are a key ingredient in confectionery products, beer, soft drinks, sports drinks, jams, sauces and ice creams, as well as in pharmaceuticals and industrial fermentations.

This book brings together all the relevant information on the manufacture and use of glucose syrups. Drawing on forty years’ experience in the international glucose industry, the author provides a valuable reference for all those involved in the processing and buying of these syrups, and for scientists involved in the manufacture of a full range of food (and some non-food) products in which the syrups are ingredients. The emphasis is on practical information - recipes are included where relevant in the applications chapters, and appendices offer commonly-used calculations and useful data. Food technologists can use the book to make choices about the most suitable glucose syrup to use in a particular application, and also to adapt recipes in order to replace sugar (sucrose) or other ingredients. A glossary of terms reflecting the international terminology of the industry completes the book.


A note on nomenclature


Chapter 1 History of glucose syrups

1.1 Historical developments

1.2 Analytical developments

1.3 Process developments

Chapter 2 Fructose containing syrups

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Commercial development

2.3 Europe and the HFGS (isoglucose) production quota

2.4 Inulin

Chapter 3 Glucose syrup manufacture

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Reducing sugars

3.3 Starch

3.4 Enzymes

3.5 The process

3.6 Acid hydrolysis

3.7 Acid enzyme hydrolysis

3.8 Paste Enzyme Enzyme hydrolysis (PEE)

3.9 Crystalline dextrose production

3.10 Total sugar production

3.11 Enzyme enzyme hydrolysis (E/E)

3.12 Isomerisation

3.13 Syrups for particular applications

3.14 Summary of typical sugar spectra produced by different processes

Chapter 4 Explanation of glucose syrup specifications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 What specification details mean?

4.3 Dry products

4.4 Syrup problems and their possible causes

4.5 Bulk tank installation

4.6 Bulk tank design

Chapter 5 Application properties of glucose syrups

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of properties

5.3 Bodying agent

5.4 Browning reaction

5.5 Cohesiveness

5.6 Fermentability

5.7 Flavour enhancement

5.8 Flavour transfer medium

5.9 Foam stabilisers

5.10 Freezing point depression

5.11 Humectancy

5.12 Hygroscopicity

5.13 Nutritive solids

5.14 Osmotic pressure

5.15 Prevention of sucrose crystallisation

5.16 Prevention of coarse ice crystal formation

5.17 Sheen producer

5.18 Sweetness

5.19 Viscosity

5.20 Summary of properties

5.21 Differences between glucose syrups and sucrose

Chapter 6 Syrup applications: an overview

6.1 Introduction

6.2 42 DE Glucose Syrup

6.3 28 and 35 DE Glucose Syrup

6.4 Glucose syrup solids

6.5 Maltose and high maltose syrups

6.6 63 DE Glucose Syrup

6.7 95 DE Glucose Syrup

6.8 Dextrose monohydrate

6.9 HFGS and fructose syrups

6.10 Maltodextrins

Chapter 7 Trehalose

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Production

7.3 Properties

7.4 Applications

Chapter 8 Sugar alcohols: an overview

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Production

8.3 Overview of polyol properties

8.4 Applications overview

Chapter 9 Glucose syrups in baking and biscuit products

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Fermented goods

9.3 Non-fermented goods

9.4 Biscuits

9.5 Biscuit fillings

9.6 Wafer fillings

9.7 Bakery sundries

9.8 Reduced calorie products

9.9 Breakfast cereals

Chapter 10 Glucose syrups in brewing

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Brewing process

10.3 Historical use of glucose syrups

10.4 The role of glucose syrups

10.5 Low-alcohol and low-calorie beer

10.6 De-ionised glucose syrups

10.7 High-gravity brewing

10.8 Brewer’s extract – cost calculations

10.9 Chip sugar

Chapter 11 Glucose syrups in confectionery

11.1 Introduction

11.2 What can glucose syrups offer the confectioner?

11.3 Which glucose syrup to use?

11.4 Typical glucose syrup inclusion rates

11.5 Some basic confectionery recipes 161

11.6 Calorie-reduced products

Chapter 12 Glucose syrups in fermentations: an overview

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Choice of substrate

12.3 Basic fermentation process

12.4 Products of fermentation

Chapter 13 Glucose syrups in ice creams and similar products

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Ingredients and process

13.3 Glucose syrups – freezing point and relative sweetness values

13.4 Quick process checks

13.5 Soft serve ice creams

13.6 Other types of frozen dessert

13.7 Yogurts

13.8 Sorbet

13.9 Mousse

13.10 Ice lollies

13.11 Fruit lollies

13.12 Ripple syrups

13.13 Topping or dessert syrup

13.14 Reduced calorie products

Chapter 14 Glucose syrups in jams

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Effects of boiling

14.3 Use of glucose syrups

14.4 Domestic jam

14.5 Jelly jams

14.6 Honey type spread

14.7 Chocolate spread

14.8 Peanut spread

14.9 Industrial jams

14.10 Diabetic and reduced calorie products

14.11 How to calculate a recipe?

Chapter 15 Glucose syrups in tomato products and other types of dressings and sauces

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Which glucose syrup to use?

15.3 Tomato products

15.4 Other dressings

15.5 Other sauces, marinades and pickles

15.6 Reduced calorie products

Chapter 16 Glucose syrups in soft drinks

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Ingredients

16.3 Effect of process inversion

16.4 Use of glucose syrups

16.5 Quality considerations

16.6 Laboratory evaluation of glucose syrups in soft drinks

16.7 Soft drink recipes

16.8 Powdered drinks

16.9 Reduced calorie drinks

Chapter 17 Glucose syrups in health and sports drinks

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The energy source

17.3 Classification of health drinks

17.4 Osmotic pressure of health drinks

17.5 Sucrose in sports or health drinks

17.6 Formulating a sports drink

17.7 Energy values

17.8 Oral rehydration

17.9 Geriatric drinks and liquid foods

17.10 Slimming foods

Chapter 18 Carbohydrate metabolism and caloric values

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Human digestive system

18.3 Carbohydrate absorption

18.4 Summary of carbohydrate metabolism

18.5 Carbohydrate metabolic problems

18.6 Caloric values

Chapter 19 Caramel – the colouring

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Process

19.3 Properties

19.4 Applications


Appendix A Simple analytical information

A.1 Introduction

A.2 The ingredient declaration panel

A.3 Does it contain glucose syrup?

A.4 What HPLC sugar analysis can tell?

Appendix B Simple calculations

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Adjusting syrup solids

B.3 Altering the sugar spectra of a glucose syrup blend

B.4 How to calculate equivalent sweetness values?

B.5 Relationship between density, volume and weight of glucose syrups

B.6 How much syrup is required to obtain a given weight of syrup solids?

B.7 Brix, RI and RI Solids, % Solids and Baumé

B.8 Recipe costings

B.9 Colligative properties

Appendix C Sugars data

C.1 Approximate % sugar spectra of different glucose syrups

C.2 Theoretical molecular weights

C.3 Sweetness values

C.4 Approximate sugar spectra of domestic sweeteners

C.5 Typical particle size for different grades of sucrose

C.6 Melting points

C.7 Solubility – grams per 100 ml

Appendix D Tables

D.1 Temperature conversion

D.2 Viscosity of glucose syrups at different Dextrose Equivalents and temperatures. Reproduced by courtesy of The Corn Refiners Association

D.3 Maize starch Baumé tables. Reproduced by courtesy of The Corn Refiners Association

D.4 Sucrose Brix table – Brix – % sucrose w/w, specific gravity and Baumé (145 modulus)

D.5 Sucrose Brix – refractive indices at 20◦C

D.6 Glucose syrup tables – commercial Baumé, DE, % solids – at 60◦C (140◦F)

D.7 Sieve specifications



“A most readable and practical reference book for anyone working in the food and brewing industries ”.  (Chemistry & Industry, 27 September 2010)

"The applications are based on the author’s 40 years of experience in the industry and contain detailed recipes for a wide range of products which require starch-derived sweeteners. The personal experience of the author comes through with valuable descriptions of the effect of different glucose syrups on taste, texture and shelf-life. It will form a valuable textbook to students of food technology and culinary arts, technologists engaged in product development, new technologists to the industry and also prove useful to more experienced technologists wishing to understand more about glucose syrups as raw materials." (Food Science and Technology, 27 November 2012)
-- the only current book which brings together all the relevant, practical information on the manufacture and use of glucose/corn syrups

-- draws on the author’s 40 years’ of experience in the international glucose industry

-- appendices provide commonly-used calculations and useful data, and a glossary of terms reflecting the international terminology of the industry completes the book