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Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composite Materials

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Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composite Materials

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Description

Presents new and innovative bio-based monomers to replace traditional petrochemical-based building blocks

Featuring contributions from top experts in the field, this book discusses new developments in the area of bio monomers and green polymeric composite materials. It covers bio monomers, green polymeric composites, composites from renewable resources, bio-sourced polymers, green composites, biodegradation, processing methods, green polymeric gels, and green polymeric membranes. 

Each chapter in Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials presents the most recent research and technological ideas in a comprehensive style. It examines bio monomers for green polymer and the processing methods for the bio nanocomposites. It covers the preparation, characterization, and applications of bio-polymeric materials based blends, as well as the applications of biopolymeric gels in medical biotechnology. The book also explores the properties and applications of gelatins, pectins, and carrageenans gels. Additionally, it offers a plethora of information on green polymeric membranes; the bio-degradation of green polymeric composites materials; applications of green polymeric composites materials; hydrogels used for biomedical applications; and the use of natural aerogels as thermal insulations. 

  • Introduces readers to the innovative, new bio-based monomers that are taking the place of traditional petrochemical-based building blocks
  • Covers green polymers, green composites, bio-sourced polymers, bio nanocomposites, biodegradable polymers, green polymer gels, and membranes
  • Features input from leading researchers immersed in the area of study

Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials is suitable for academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and advanced students in the field of bio monomers and green polymeric composites materials.

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 Biomonomers for Green Polymers: Introduction 1
P. M. Visakh

1.1 Processing Methods for Bionanocomposites 1

1.2 Biopolymeric Material-based Blends: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 4

1.3 Applications of Biopolymeric Gels in Medical Biotechnology 5

1.4 Introduction to Green Polymeric Membranes 6

1.5 Properties and Applications of Gelatin, Pectin, and Carrageenan Gels 7

1.6 Biodegradation of Green Polymeric Composite Materials 9

1.7 Applications of Green Polymeric Composite Materials 10

1.8 Constituents, Fabrication, Crosslinking, and Clinical Applications of Hydrogels 11

1.9 Natural Aerogels as Thermal Insulation 13

References 14

2 Processing Methods for Bionanocomposites 25
Dipali R. Bagal-Kestwal, M.H. Pan and Been-Huang Chiang

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Classification of NBCs 26

2.2.1 Matrix-based NBCs 26

2.2.1.1 Polysaccharide Nanocomposites 26

2.2.1.2 Animal Protein-based Nanocomposites 28

2.2.1.3 Plant Protein-based Nanocomposites 29

2.2.2 Reinforcement-based NBCs 29

2.2.2.1 Metal Nanocomposites 30

2.2.2.2 Inorganic Nanocomposites 31

2.3 General Processing Methods for NBCs 31

2.3.1 Pressure Extrusion 32

2.3.2 Solid-state Shear Pulverization 32

2.3.3 Electrospinning and Co-axial Electrospinning 33

2.3.4 Solution Casting and Evaporation 34

2.3.5 Melt Intercalation Method 34

2.3.6 In Situ Polymerization 35

2.3.7 Drying Techniques (Freeze-drying and Hot Pressing) 35

2.3.8 Polymer Grafting 36

2.4 Properties of NBCs 37

2.5 Future and Applications of NBCs 37

Acknowledgments 37

References 38

3 Biopolymeric Material-based Blends: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 57
Muhammad Abdur Rehman and Zia ur Rehman

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 State of the Art in Biopolymeric Blends 58

3.3 Preparative Methods for Blend Formation 58

3.4 Blend Preparation by the Melting Process 59

3.5 Aqueous Blending Technology 60

3.6 Hydrophilic or Hydrophobic Biopolymeric Blends 63

3.6.1 Biopolymeric Blends of Starch and Polylactic Acid 64

3.6.1.1 Maleic Anhydride-grafted PLA Chains 65

3.6.1.2 Polycaprolactone-grafted Polysaccharide Copolymers 65

3.6.2 Hydrolytic Degradability of Biopolymeric Blends 65

3.6.3 Thermodynamics of Miscibility with Additives 66

3.6.3.1 Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate 66

3.6.3.2 Dioctyl Maleate 67

3.6.3.3 Polyvinyl Alcohols 67

3.6.3.4 Poly(hydroxyester ether) 67

3.6.3.5 Poly(𝛽-hydroxybutyrate)-co-3-hydroxyvalerate 67

3.6.3.6 Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) 67

3.6.4 Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) 68

3.6.4.1 Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) 68

3.7 Opportunities and Challenges 68

3.8 Summary 69

References 69

4 Applications of Biopolymeric Gels in Medical Biotechnology 77
Zulal Yalinca and Sükrü Tüzmen

4.1 Introduction 77

4.1.1 Historical Background 77

4.1.2 Classification of Hydrogels 77

4.1.3 Preparation Methods of Hydrogels 80

4.1.3.1 Physical Crosslinked Hydrogels 81

4.1.3.2 Chemical Crosslinked Hydrogels 81

4.1.3.3 General Properties of Hydrogels 81

4.2 Types of Biopolymeric Gels 81

4.3 Applications of Biopolymeric Gel 84

4.3.1 Applications of Hydrogels in Drug-delivery Systems 86

4.3.2 Applications of Hydrogels in siRNA and Peptide-based Therapeutics 87

4.3.3 Applications of Hydrogels in Wound Healing, Tissue Engineering, and Regenerative Medicine 88

4.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 88

References 89

5 Introduction to Green Polymeric Membranes 95
Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, Nor Asikin Awang, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh and Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Types of Green Polymeric Membranes 96

5.2.1 Cellulose Polymeric Membranes 96

5.2.2 Chitosan Polymeric Membranes 98

5.3 Properties of Green Polymeric Membranes 100

5.3.1 Film-forming Properties 100

5.3.2 Mechanical Properties 101

5.3.3 Thermal Stability Properties 101

5.3.4 Chemical Stability 102

5.3.5 Hydrophilicity–Hydrophobicity Balance Properties 102

5.4 Applications of Green Polymeric Membranes 103

5.4.1 Heavy Metal Removal 103

5.4.2 Water Purification 105

5.4.3 Dye Removal 107

5.4.4 Biomedical Applications 109

5.4.5 Renewable Energy 110

5.5 Conclusion 111

References 112

6 Properties and Applications of Gelatin, Pectin, and Carrageenan Gels 117
Dipali R. Bagal-Kestwal, M.H. Pan and Been-Huang Chiang

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Gelatin 117

6.2.1 Structural Unit of Gelatin 118

6.2.2 Molecular Structure of Gelatin 118

6.2.3 Properties of Gelatin 119

6.2.3.1 Thickening Ability 119

6.2.3.2 Gelling Ability 120

6.2.3.3 Film-Forming Property 120

6.2.3.4 Other Properties 120

6.2.3.5 Microbiological Properties 120

6.2.4 Gelatin Applications 120

6.2.4.1 Food Applications 121

6.2.4.2 Cosmetics and Pharmaceutical Applications 121

6.2.4.3 Other Applications 122

6.3 Pectins 122

6.3.1 Natural Sources of Pectin 122

6.3.2 Structural Unit of Pectin 123

6.3.3 Low Methoxyl Pectins 124

6.3.4 High Methoxyl Pectins 124

6.3.5 Gelation of Pectins 125

6.3.6 Pectin Extraction 125

6.3.7 Pectin Functionality and Applications 126

6.4 Carrageenans 128

6.4.1 Sources 128

6.4.2 Carrageenan Structure 128

6.4.3 Properties of Carrageenans 129

6.4.4 Extraction of Carrageenans 129

6.4.5 Applications of Carrageenans 130

6.5 Future Prospects 132

Acknowledgments 132

References 133

7 Biodegradation of Green Polymeric Composites Materials 141
Karthika M., Nitheesha Shaji, Athira Johnson, Neelakandan M. Santhosh, Deepu A. Gopakumar and Sabu Thomas

7.1 Introduction 141

7.2 Biodegradation of Green Polymers 142

7.2.1 Green Polymers: Definition and Properties 142

7.2.2 Mechanism of Biodegradation 144

7.2.3 Biodegradation of Green Polymers 149

7.3 Biodegradation of Composite Materials 150

7.4 Conclusion 155

References 156

8 Applications of Green Polymeric Composite Materials 161
Bilahari Aryat, V.K. YaduNath, Neelakandan M. Santhosh and Deepu A. Gopakumar

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications of PEG 162

8.2.1 Biological Separations 162

8.2.2 PEG Proteins and PEG Peptides for Medical Applications 163

8.2.3 Poly(lactic acid): Properties and Applications 163

8.2.3.1 Activity of PEG on Non-fouling Surfaces 164

8.2.3.2 Tether between Molecules and Surfaces 164

8.2.3.3 Control of Electro-osmosis 164

8.2.3.4 PLA as a Viable Biodegradable Polymer 164

8.3 Industrial Applications 165

8.3.1 Biological Applications 170

8.3.2 Biosensors 170

8.3.3 Tissue Engineering 170

8.3.4 Wound-healing Applications 170

8.3.5 Packaging Applications 171

8.4 Conclusion 171

References 172

9 Hydrogels used for Biomedical Applications 175
Nafisa Gull, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Atif Islam and Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 Hydrogels 175

9.3 Short History of Hydrogels 176

9.4 Methods of Fabrication of Hydrogels 176

9.5 Classification of Hydrogels 177

9.6 Natural Polymers Used for Hydrogels 177

9.6.1 Protein 177

9.6.1.1 Collagen 177

9.6.1.2 Gelatine 178

9.6.1.3 Matrigel 178

9.6.2 Polysaccharides 179

9.6.2.1 Hyaluronic Acid 179

9.6.2.2 Alginate 180

9.6.2.3 Chitosan 180

9.6.2.4 Xyloglucan 181

9.6.2.5 Dextran 181

9.6.2.6 Agarose 183

9.6.3 Heparin 183

9.7 Synthetic Polymers Used for Hydrogels 185

9.7.1 Polyacrylic Acid 185

9.7.2 Polyimide 185

9.7.3 Polyethylene Glycol 186

9.7.4 Polyvinyl Alcohol 186

9.8 Crosslinking of Hydrogels 187

9.8.1 Physical Crosslinking 187

9.8.2 Chemical Crosslinking 187

9.8.3 Photocrosslinking 188

9.9 Biomedical Applications of Hydrogels 188

9.9.1 Contact Lenses 188

9.9.2 Oral Drug Delivery 189

9.9.3 Tissue Engineering 189

9.9.4 Wound Healing 190

9.9.5 Gene Delivery 190

9.10 Conclusions 191

References 191

10 Natural Aerogels as Thermal Insulators 201
Mohammadreza Saboktakin and Amin Saboktakin

References 220

Index 227