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Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment

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Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment

Pramendra K. Bajpai (Editor), Inderdeep Singh (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-82099-3 August 2019 400 Pages

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Description

Presents state-of-the-art processing techniques and readily applicable knowledge on processing of polymer composites

The book presents the advancement in the field of reinforced polymer composites with emphasis on manufacturing techniques, including processing of different reinforced polymer composites, secondary processing of green composites, and post life cycle processing. It discusses the advantages and limitations of each processing method and the effect of processing parameters on the overall performance of the composites. Characterization and applications of reinforced polymer composites are also introduced.

Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment starts off by providing readers with a comprehensive overview of the field. It then introduces them to the fabrication of both short fiber/filler reinforced polymer composites and laminated reinforced polymer composites. Next, it takes them through the processing of polymer-based nanocomposites; the many advances in curing methods of reinforced polymer composites; and post life cycle processing, re-processing, and disposal mechanisms of reinforced polymer composites. Numerous other chapters cover: synthetic versus natural fiber reinforced plastics; characterization techniques of reinforced plastics; friction and wear analysis of reinforced plastics; secondary processing of reinforced plastics; and applications of reinforced plastics.

-Presents the latest development in materials, processing, and characterization techniques, as well as applications of reinforced polymer composites
-Guides users in choosing the best processing methods to produce polymer composites and successfully manufacture high quality products
-Assists academics in sorting out basic research questions and helps those in industry manufacture products, such as marine, automotive, aerospace, and sport goods

Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment is an important book for materials scientists, polymer chemists, chemical engineers, process engineers, and anyone involved in the chemical or plastics technology industry.

1 Overview and Present Status of Reinforced Polymer Composites 1
Furkan Ahmad, Inderdeep Singh, and Pramendra K. Bajpai

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 FRPCs 4

1.2.1 Fabrication of Fiber Reinforced Composites 4

1.2.2 Present Status of FRPCs 5

1.3 FRPCs Applications and Future Prospects 9

1.4 Conclusion 12

References 12

2 Fabrication of Short Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 21
Ujendra K. Komal, Manish K. Lila, Saurabh Chaitanya, and Inderdeep Singh

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Challenges with Composite Materials 23

2.3 Preprocessing of Natural Fibers and Polymeric Matrix 25

2.3.1 Fiber Surface Modification 25

2.3.2 Compounding of Natural Fibers and Polymeric Matrix 25

2.4 Processing of Polymeric Matrix Composites 26

2.4.1 Selection of Processing Techniques 28

2.4.2 Injection Molding 29

2.4.2.1 Operating Parameters 29

2.4.2.2 Challenges in Injection Molding of Natural Fiber-Based Composites 33

2.4.2.3 Fabrication of Polymeric Composites by Injection Molding Process 34

2.4.2.4 Mechanical Performance of Injection Molded Composites 34

2.5 Conclusions 35

References 36

3 Fabrication of Composite Laminates 39
Sandhyarani Biswas and Jasti Anurag

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Fabrication Processes 40

3.2.1 Hand Lay-up Process 40

3.2.2 Filament Winding Process 42

3.2.3 Compression Molding Process 43

3.2.4 Vacuum Bagging Process 45

3.2.5 Autoclave Molding 46

3.2.6 Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) Process 46

3.2.7 Pultrusion Process 48

3.3 Conclusions 49

References 50

4 Processing of Polymer-Based Nanocomposites 55
Ramesh K. Nayak, Kishore K. Mahato, and Bankim C. Ray

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Classification of Nanomaterials 58

4.2.1 Nanocomposites 58

4.2.2 Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites 59

4.3 Fabrication Techniques of Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites 60

4.3.1 Ultrasonic and Dual Mixing 61

4.3.2 Three-Roll Mixing of Nano-fillers in PMC 63

4.3.3 Intercalation Method 64

4.3.4 Sol–Gel Method 67

4.3.5 Direct Mixing of Polymer and Nano-fillers 68

4.3.5.1 Melt Compounding 68

4.3.5.2 Solvent Method 69

4.4 Future Perspective and Challenges 70

Acknowledgment 71

References 71

5 Advances in Curing Methods of Reinforced Polymer Composites 77
Ankit Manral, Furkan Ahmad, and Bhasha Sharma

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Curing Method 79

5.3 Thermal Curing of FRPC 81

5.3.1 Autoclave Curing 81

5.3.1.1 Properties of FRPCs Influenced by Autoclave Parameters 85

5.3.2 Induction Curing 86

5.3.3 Resistance Curing 89

5.3.4 Microwave Curing 90

5.3.4.1 Properties Influenced by Microwave Curing of FRPC 92

5.3.5 Ultrasonic Curing 93

5.4 Radiation Curing of FRPCs 93

5.4.1 Electron Beam Radiation Curing 96

5.4.2 Ultraviolet Curing (UV) 98

5.5 Conclusion 99

References 100

6 Friction and Wear Analysis of Reinforced Polymer Composites 105
Pawan Kumar Rakesh and Lalit Ranakoti

6.1 Introduction 105

6.1.1 Fiber Reinforced Plastics 105

6.1.2 Failure Mechanism of Fiber Reinforced Plastics 106

6.1.3 Adhesion Wear 107

6.1.4 Abrasive Wear 109

6.1.5 Fatigue Wear 109

6.1.6 Wear Testing Method 111

6.2 Results and Discussion 114

6.3 Conclusions 116

References 116

7 Characterization Techniques of Reinforced Polymer Composites 119
Manish K. Lila, Ujendra K. Komal, and Inderdeep Singh

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 Fiber Reinforced Polymers 120

7.3 Characterization of FRPs 121

7.4 Chemical Characterization 122

7.5 Physical Characterization 126

7.5.1 Microscopic Characterization 126

7.5.2 Density 128

7.5.3 Void Fraction 129

7.5.4 Surface Hardness 130

7.5.5 Surface Roughness 131

7.6 Mechanical Characterization 132

7.6.1 Tensile test 133

7.6.2 Compression Test 134

7.6.3 Flexural Test 135

7.6.4 Impact Test 136

7.6.5 Shear Test 136

7.7 Thermal Characterization 137

7.7.1 Thermal Properties 138

7.7.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis 139

7.7.3 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 139

7.7.4 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) 140

7.8 Durability Characterization 140

7.8.1 Creep Testing 141

7.8.2 Fatigue Testing 141

7.8.3 Wear Testing 142

7.8.4 Fire Testing 143

7.8.5 Environmental Testing 143

7.9 Conclusion 144

References 144

8 Detection of Delamination in Fiber Metal Laminates Based on Local Defect Resonance 147
Tanmoy Bose, Subhankar Roy, and Kishore Debnath

8.1 Introduction 147

8.2 Local Defect Resonance Based Nondestructive Evaluation 149

8.2.1 Concept of Local Defect Resonance 149

8.2.2 Modeling of GLARE-Fiber Metal Laminate 150

8.2.3 Determination of LDR Frequency from Steady State Analysis 152

8.3 Super-Harmonic and Subharmonic Excitation in Fiber Metal Laminates 153

8.4 Detection of LDR Frequency Using Bicoherence Analysis 155

8.4.1 Theory of Bicoherence Estimation 155

8.4.2 Case Study of a Flat Bottom Hole 157

8.4.2.1 Modeling of a Flat Bottom Hole 157

8.4.2.2 Determination of LDR Frequency Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Plot 159

8.4.2.3 Determination of LDR Frequency Using Bicoherence Analysis 159

8.4.2.4 Validation of the LDR Frequency Using Steady State Analysis 161

8.5 Concluding Remarks 161

References 162

9 Secondary Processing of Reinforced Polymer Composites by Conventional and Nonconventional Manufacturing Processes 165
Manpreet Singh, Sarbjit Singh, and Parvesh Antil

9.1 Introduction 165

9.2 Secondary Processing of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites by Conventional Machining 166

9.2.1 Conventional Drilling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 166

9.2.2 Grinding Assisted Drilling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 167

9.2.3 Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 168

9.2.4 High Speed Drilling (HSD) of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 168

9.2.5 Drilling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites with Drill Bit Geometry of Different Materials 168

9.2.6 Milling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 171

9.2.7 Turning of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 171

9.3 Secondary Processing of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites by Nonconventional Machining 173

9.3.1 Laser Beam Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 173

9.3.2 Ultrasonic Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 174

9.3.3 Abrasive Water Jet Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 175

9.3.4 Electrical Discharge Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 178

9.3.5 Electrochemical Discharge Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 179

9.4 Concluding Remarks 180

References 181

10 Hybrid Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: Mechanical Strength Characterization and Life Assessment 189
Parvesh Antil, Sarbjit Singh, and Manpreet Singh

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) 191

10.2.1 Matrix 191

10.2.2 Reinforcement 191

10.2.3 Fabrication of HGFRPC 192

10.2.4 Morphology of Normal and Hybrid PMC 193

10.2.5 Mechanical Strength Analysis 194

10.2.6 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy 197

10.3 Environmental Degradation of PMCs 199

10.4 Life Assessment of PMCs 201

10.4.1 Morphological Inspection 202

10.5 Conclusions 205

References 206

11 Fire Performance of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites 209
Divya Zindani, Kaushik Kumar, and João Paulo Davim

11.1 Introduction 209

11.2 Flammability Aspects and Thermal Properties of Natural Fibers and Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites 210

11.3 Fire Retardants 216

11.4 Flame Retardants 216

11.4.1 Mineral Flame Retardants 216

11.4.2 Bulging of Flame Retardants 217

11.5 Fire Performance for Usability as Materials in Transportation 218

11.6 Fire Performance for Usability as Building Materials 219

11.7 Summary 220

References 221

12 Post Life Cycle Processing of Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites 225
N.H. Salwa, S.M. Sapuan, M.T.Mastura, and M.Y.M. Zuhri

12.1 Introduction 225

12.2 Polymer Composites 226

12.2.1 Thermoplastic Polymer 227

12.2.2 Reinforcing Fibers in Composites 228

12.2.3 Green Bio-composites 229

12.3 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 230

12.3.1 Definition 230

12.3.1.1 Goal and Scope 233

12.3.1.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) 234

12.3.1.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) 235

12.3.1.4 Life Cycle Results Interpretation 237

12.4 LCA Studies on Bio-composites 238

12.4.1 LCA Bio-composites 238

12.4.1.1 LCA Natural Fiber 239

12.4.2 LCA Biopolymer 240

12.5 LCA Limitations 241

12.6 Conclusions 243

Acknowledgment 244

References 244

13 Reprocessing and Disposal Mechanisms for Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 249
Vijay Chaudhary, Khushi Ram, and Furkan Ahmad

13.1 Introduction 249

13.2 Reprocessing or Recycling Methods of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 251

13.3 Mechanical Recycling 252

13.4 Chemical Recycling 254

13.5 Hydrolytic Degradation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite 255

13.6 Photodegradation of Polymer Composite 256

13.7 Biodegradation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 257

13.8 Conclusion 258

References 262

Index 267