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Bird Strike in Aviation: Statistics, Analysis and Management

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Bird Strike in Aviation: Statistics, Analysis and Management

Ahmed F. El-Sayed

ISBN: 978-1-119-52979-8 May 2019 368 Pages

Description

Groundbreaking Handbook Offers Detailed Research and Valuable Methodology to Address Dangerous and Costly Aviation Hazard 

Though annual damages from bird and bat collisions with aircraft have been estimated at $400 million in the United States and up to $1.2 billion in commercial aviation worldwide and despite numerous conferences and councils dedicated to the issue, very little has been published on this expensive and sometimes-lethal flying risk. Bird Strike in Aviation seeks to fill this gap, providing a comprehensive guide to preventing and minimizing damage caused by bird strike on aircraft.

Based on a thorough and comprehensive examination of the subject, Dr. El-Sayed offers different approaches to reducing bird strikes, including detailed coverage of the three categories necessary for such reduction, namely, awareness/education, bird management (active and passive control), and aircraft design. In addition, the text discusses the importance of cooperation between airplanes, airports and air traffic authorities as well as testing methods necessary for certification of both aircraft frame and engine. Other notable features include:

  • Statistics and analyses for bird strikes with both civil and military helicopters as well as military fixed wing aircrafts, including annual costs, critical flight altitudes, critical parts of aircraft, distance from air base and specifics of date and timing
  • Thorough review and analysis all fatal bird strike accidents and most non-fatal accidents since 1905, the first book to provide such a reference
  • The use of numerical methods in analyzing historic data (ex. probability functions, finite element methods for analyzing impact on aircraft structure, experimental measurement technique for displacement, vibration, component distortion, etc.)
  • Instruction on identification of bird species (using visual, microscopic, and DNA evidence) and details of bird migration to aid air traffic control in avoiding scenarios likely to result in collision

With its wealth of statistical data, innovative research, and practical suggestions, Bird Strike in Aviation will prove a vital resource for researchers, engineers and graduate students in aerospace engineering/manufacturing or ornithology, as well as for military and civilian pilots and flight crew or professionals in aviation authorities and air traffic control.

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Abstract 14

1.1 Introduction 14

1.2 Bird strike a sector of foreign object damage (FOD) 20

1.3 Brief history of bird strike 22

1.4 Brief statistics of bird strike 26

1.5 Classification of birds based on its size 29

1.5.1 Small Birds (Less than 2 lb) 29

1.5.2 Small- Medium Birds (2-4 lb) 30

1.5.3 Medium-Large Birds (4-8 lb) 31

1.5.4 Large Birds (8-12 lb) 32

1.5.5 Massive Birds (12-30 lb) 35

1.6 Bird strike risk 36

1.6.1 Civilian Aircrafts 36

1.6.2 Military Aircrafts 40

1.6.3 Helicopters 42

1.7 Severity of Bird Strikes 44

1.8 Field experience of aircraft industry and airlines regarding bird ingestion into aeroengines 44

1.8.1 Pratt &Whitney (USA) 44

1.8.2 General Electric Aviation (USA) 45

1.8.3 Southwest Airlines (USA) 45

1.8.4 MTU (Germany) 46

1.8.5 FL Technics (Vilnius, Lithuania) 46

References 47

Chapter 2 Aircraft Damage 49

Abstract 49

2.1 Introduction 50

2.2 Accidents vs. Incidents 53

2.2.1 Accident 53

2.2.2 Serious injury 54

2.2.3 Incident 54

2.3 Bird Strike Consequences 55

2.4 Impact Force 57

2.5 Locations of bird strike damage for airliners 60

2.5.1 Nose and RADAR DOME (RADOME) 61

2.5.2 Windshield and Flight cockpit 68

2.5.3 Landing Gear and Landing Gear System 73

3.4.4 Fuselage 78

2.5.5 Wings 79

2.5.6 Empennage 85

2.5.7 Power Plant 85

2.5.8 PROPELLER 103

2.5.9 V-22 Osprey as a military example 103

2.5.10 Other Strikes to Airplane instruments 106

2.5 Helicopters 106

2.6 Some Accident Data 112

2.6.1 Fixed Wing Aircrafts 112

2.6.2 Rotary Wing (Helicopters) 115

References 117

Chapter 3 Statistics for Different Aspects of Bird Strikes 122

Abstract 122

3.1 Introduction 123

3.2 Statistics for Bird Strike 124

3.3 Cases for Bird Strike 126

3.3.1 Single or multiple large bird(s) 126

3.3.2 Relatively small numbers of medium-size birds (2-10 birds) 126

3.3.3 Large flocks of relatively small birds (greater than 10 birds) 127

3.4 Classification of birds based on critical sites in aerodrome 129

3.4.1. Birds flying or soaring over aerodrome or approach paths (100-4000 feet AGL) 129

3.4.2. Birds flying, sailing low or hovering over active runway and shoulders (2200 feet AGL). 129

3.4.3. Birds perching and walking on runway/shoulders 130

3.4.4. Birds squatting on runway to rest 131

3.4.5. Birds feeding on live or dead insects or animals on runway. 131

3.4.6. Birds perched on runway lights, flood-lit towers, electric poles and other perches [3] 132

3.5 Bird Impact Resistance Regulation for Fixed Wing Aircrafts 133

3.5.1 Transport Aircrafts (Airliners, Civilian and Military Cargo) 133

3.5.1.1 Airframe 133

3.5.1.2 Engines 134

3.5.2 General Aviation Aircrafts 134

3.5.3 Light non-commuter aeroplanes 135

3.6 Bird Impact Resistance Regulation for Rotorcrafts 135

3.6.1 Large Rotorcraft 135

3.6.2 Small Rotorcraft 135

3.7 Statistics for Fixed Wing Civilian Airplanes 135

3.7.1 Critical Parts of Turbofan/Turbojet Aircrafts 136

3.7.2 Critical Modules of Turboprop/Piston Aircrafts 145

3.7.3 Bird strike versus altitude 148

3.7.4 Bird strike by phase of flight 153

3.7.5 Annual bird strike statistics 156

3.7.6Monthly Bird strike statistics 160

3.7.8 Bird strike by time of day 162

3.7.9 Bird strike by continent 165

3.7.10 Bird strike by weight of birds 167

3.7.11 Bird strike by aircraft category 168

3.7.12 Bird strike by bird species 171

3.7.13 Populations of Some Dangerous bird species in North America 174

3.7.14 Dangerous bird species in Europe 176

3.8 Military Aviation 177

3.8.1 Introduction 177

3.8.2 Annual bird strike with military aircrafts 178

3.8.3 Annual costs of bird strike with military aircrafts 181

3.8.4 Statistics of bird strike by altitude 182

3.8.5 Bird strike by aircraft type 184

3.8.6 Bird strike by flight phase 186

3.8.7 Bird strike by distance from base 189

3.8.8 Bird strike by month 190

3.8.9 Bird strike by time of day 191

3.8.10 Bird strike by part 192

3.8.11 Critical Bird species 192

3.9 Bird Strike Helicopters (rotating wing aircrafts) 193

3.9.1 Bird Strike with Civilian Helicopters 193

3.9.2 Bird Strike with Military Helicopters 195

3.10 Birds killed in strikes with aircrafts 198

Chapter 4 Fatal Bird Strike Accidents 203

Abstract 203

4.1. Introduction 204

4.2. Civil Aircrafts 205

4.2.1 Introduction 205

4.2.2 Statistics of Annual Fatal Accidents due to bird strike 205

4.2.3 Statistics of Critical Flight Phases 209

4.3 Fatal accidents of civil aircrafts 212

4.4 statistics for civil aircraft accidents 240

4.4.1 Statistics for critical damaged parts of aircraft 240

4.4.2 Statistics for strikes with different types of engines 243

4.4.3 Effects of the wildlife strike on flight: 244

4.4.4 Dangerous Birds 244

4.5 Statistics for bird strike incidents/accidents in USA in the period 1990-2015 247

4.6 Statistics for Russian accidents in the period 1988 - 1990 249

4.7 Military Aircrafts 251

4.7.1 Introduction 251

4.7.2 Statistics for Military Aircraft accidents 252

4.7.3 Statistics for Ex-Soviet Union Air Force in East Germany 255

4.7.4 Details of Some Accidents for Military Aircrafts 257

4.7.5 Details of Accidents for Military Aircrafts in Norway in 2016 266

4.7.6 Comparison between bird strikes with civilian and military Aircrafts 269

4.8 Helicopters 270

4.8.1 Introduction 270

4.8.2 Statistics for number of strikes for civil and military helicopters in USA 272

4.8.3 Statistics for bird strikes with flight phase 273

4.8.4 Statistics for bird strikes with time of day 273

4.8.5 Statistics for parts of helicopters struck by birds (January 2009 through February 2016) 274

4.8.6 Statistics for bird species striking and damaging helicopters 274

4.8.7 Fatal Accidents 275

4.9 Conclusions 278

References 279

Chapter 5 Bird migration 283

Abstract 283

5.1 Introduction 284

5.2 Why Do Birds Migrate? 287

5.3 Some migration facts 288

5.4 Basic Types of Migration 289

5.4.1 Classification of Migration based on pattern 289

5.4.2 Classification of Migration based on type of motion 293

5.4.3 Classification of Migration based on distance travelled 293

5.4.4 Permanent residents 295

5.5 Migrants Flight Speed 295

5.6 Migrants Navigation 295

5.7 Migration Threats 295

5.8 Migratory Bird Flyways 297

5.8.1 Introduction 297

5.8.2 North American Migration Flyways - The 4-ways 301

5.8.2.1 The Atlantic Flyway 302

5.8.2.2 The Mississippi Flyway 302

5.8.2.3 The Central Flyway 303

5.8.2.4 The Pacific Flyway 303

5.8.3 The Americas bird migration 304

5.8.3.1 North – South Americas 304

5.8.3.2 Alaska's flyways 306

5.8.4 Africa Eurasia Flyways 307

5.8.5 East Asian-Australian Flyways 310

5.9 Radio Telemetry 313

References 315

Chapter 6 Bird Strike Management 316

Abstract 316

6.1 Introduction 317

6.2 Why birds are attracted to airports 319

6.2.1 Food 319

6.2.2 Water 321

6.2.3 Cover 321

6.3 Misconceptions or myths 322

6.4 The FAA National Wildlife Strike Database for Civil Aviation 325

6.5 Management for Fixed-wing aircrafts 327

6.5.1 Reduction of bird strike hazard 327

6.5.2 Awareness 328

6.5.3 Airfield Bird Control 328

6.5.4 Aircraft design 328

6.6 Control of Airport and surroundings 329

6.7 Active Controls 329

6.7.1 Auditory (or Bioacoustics) 330

6.7.1.1 Pyrotechnics 330

6.7.1.2 Gas Cannons 331

6.7.1.3 Bioacoustics 332

6.7.2 Visual techniques 335

6.7.2.1. Lasers 335

6.7.2.2. Falconry 337

6.7.2.3. Dogs 338

6.7.2.4 Scarecrow 340

6.7.2.5. Radio Controlled Crafts 341

6.7.2.6. All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) 343

6.7.2.7. Pulsating lights 343

6.7.2.8. Scaring aircrafts 344

6.7.2.9. The Robotic Peregrine, Hawk and Falcon (Robop and Robird) 346

6.7.2.10. Corpses 349

6.7.3 Lethal techniques 350

6.7.3.1 Shooting 350

6.7.3.2. Live trapping 353

6.7.3.3. Removal of nests and young. 354

6.7.3.4. Egg manipulation 355

6.7.4 Chemical Repellents 356

6.7.4.1 Polybutene 357

6.7.4.2 Anthraquinone 357

5.7.4.3 Methyl anthranilate 358

6.7.4.4 Naphthalene 358

6.7.4.5 Avitrol 358

6.7.5 Exclusion 358

6.7.5.1 Netting 358

6.7.5.2 Porcupine Wire (Nixalite) 358

6.7.5.3 Bird-B-Gone 359

6.7.5.4 Avi-Away 359

6.7.5.5 Fine Wires (large-area applications) 359

6.7.5.6 Bird Balls™ 359

6.8 Habitat modification or Passive Management Techniques 359

6.8.1 Food Control 360

6.8.2 Water Control 362

6.8.3 Shelter Control 364

6.8.3.1 Managing Reforested Areas 365

6.8.3.2. Landscaping 365

6.9 Air traffic service providers 367

6.9.1 Controllers and Flight-service specialists 367

6.9.2. Terminal controllers 368

6.9.3. Tower and ground controllers 368

6.9.4. Flight service specialists (FSS) 368

6.9.5 Pilots 369

6.9.5.1 Preflight preparation 369

6.9.5.2 Taxiing for takeoff 369

6.9.5.3 Takeoff 370

6.9.5.4 Climb 370

6.9.5.5 Enroute 370

6.9.5.6 Approach and Landing 371

6.9.5.7 Post-flight 371

6.9.6 Air operators 371

6.9.6.1 Introduction 371

6.9.6.2 Air operator general flight planning and operating principles 372

6.9.6.3 Flight planning 373

6.9.6.4 Managing Agricultural programs in air bases 373

6.10 Aircraft design 373

6.10.1. Certification standards 373

6.10.1.2. Airframe Certification standards 373

6.10.1.3 Engine Certification Standards 374

6.10.1.4 Improved design and material developments of both airframe and engine parts 375

6.10.2 Additional requirements 376

6.10.2.1 New aircraft categories 376

6.10.2.2 Aircraft modules 377

6.11 Rotary-Wing Aviation 377

6.11.1 Helicopters 377

6.11.2 Helipads 378

6.12 Bird avoidance 378

6.12.1 Avian Radars 379

6.12.1.1. Avian Radar Fundamentals 379

6.12.1.2. Integration into Airport Operations 383

6.12.2 Optical systems 387

References 391

Chapter 7 Airframe and Engine Bird Strike Testing 395

Abstract 395

7.1 Introduction 395

7.2 Bird Impact Test Facilities 396

7.2.1 Introduction 396

7.2.2 Test facilities 397

7.2.2.1 USA 397

7.2.2.2 Canada 397

7.2.2.3 Europe 398

7.3 Details of some test facilities 398

7.3.1 Aircraft Windshields and Airframes Testing 398

7.3.1.1. Chicken Gun or Chicken Cannon 398

7.3.1.2 Alena plant testing 399

7.3.2 Engine Testing 399

7.3.3 Artificial versus real birds 400

7.3.3.1 Real birds 400

7.3.3.2 Artificial birds 401

7.4 Certification Requirements 402

7.5 Airframe testing of civil aircrafts 403

7.5.1 Wing testing 403

7.5.1.1 Case study 403

7.5.2 Empennage testing 405

7.5.2.1 Case study #1 405

7.5.2.2 Case study #2 406

7.6 Airframe Testing of Military Aircrafts 407

7.6.1 Canopy and windscreen 407

7.6.2 Lift Fan Inlet Door (STOVL Mode) 410

7.7 Engines testing of Civil and Military Aircrafts 411

7.7.1 Certifications regarding bird strikes 411

7.7.2 Test Cells 414

Case study # 1 416

7.8 Helicopters 417

Reference 420

Chapter 8 Numerical Simulation of Bird Strike 422

Abstract 422

8.1 Introduction 422

8.2 Numerical steps 424

8.2.1 Pre-processing 425

8.2.2 Solution 425

8.2.3 Post-processing 426

8.3 Bird Impact Modeling 427

8.3.1 Modeling of bird properties 427

8.3.2 Impact Modeling 430

8.4 Numerical approaches for bird strike 433

8.4.1 Mathematical model 434

8.4.2 The Lagrangian method 435

8.4.3 Eulerian approach 437

8.4.4 Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) 438

8.4.5 Smoothed particles hydrodynamics (SPH) 439

8.5 Fixed Wing Cases Study 441

8.5.1 Leading edge of wing 441

8.5.1.1. Civil aircrafts 442

8.5.1.2 Military Aircraft 448

8.5.2 Leading Edge of Vertical Tail 449

8.5.3 Leading Edge of Horizontal tail 450

8.5.4 Sidewall structure of an aircraft nose 451

8.5.5 Windshield 454

8.5.6 Aircraft Engine 457

8.6 Rotary Wings Aircrafts (Helicopters) 461

8.6.1 Helicopter windshield 461

8.6.2 Helicopter rotor and spinner 462

Reference 464

Chapter 9 Birds identification 468

Abstract 468

9.1 Introduction 469

9.2 Collecting Birdstrike Material 470

9.2.1 Feathers 470

9.2.2 Tissue/blood (“Snarge”) 471

9.2.2.1 Dry material 471

9.2.2.2 Fresh material 471

9.3 Reporting and Shipping 471

9.4 Methods Used to Identify Birdstrike Remains 472

9.4.1 Eye Examination 473

9.4.2 Microscopic examination 474

9.4.3 Keratin electrophoresis 475

9.4.4 DNA analysis 476

9.5 Accident Analysis 477

References 478