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Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas: Fields

Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas: Fields

Robert F. Pfaff (Editor), Joseph E. Borovsky (Editor), David T. Young (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66439-1 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 323 Pages



Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 103.

Space plasma measurements are conducted in a hostile, remote environment. The art and science of measurements gathered in space depend therefore on unique instrument designs and fabrication methods to an extent perhaps unprecedented in experimental physics. In-situ measurement of space plasmas constitutes an expensive, unforgiving, and highly visible form of scientific endeavor.

Robert F. Pfaff, Joseph E . Borovsky,  and David T. Young  ix

Techniques  for Measuring Fields

Electric-Field Measurements

Electric Field Measurements in a Tenuous Plasma with Spherical Double Probes
A. Pealersen, F. Mozer, and G. Gustafsson  1

Electric Field Measurements in Moderate to High Density Space Plasmas with Passive Double Probes
Nelson C. Maynard  13

The Electron Drift Technique for Measuring Electric and Magnetic Fields
G. Paschmann, C. E. Mcllwain, J. M. Quinn, R. B. Torbert, and E. C. Whipple  29

Electric Field Measurements in the Magnetosphere by the Electron Beam Boomerang  Technique
K. Tsuruda, H. Hayakawa, and M. Nakamura 39

Electron Gyro Time Measurement  Technique for Determining Electric and Magnetic Fields
H. Vaith, R. Frenzel, Go Paschmann, and E. Melzner  47

Electric Field Measurements Using the Electron Beam Technique at Low Altitudes
C. A. Kletzing, G. Paschmann, and M. Boehm  53

Electric Field Instrument Using Radiated Electrons (E -FIREA): an Innovative Approach to the
Measurement of Electric Fields in the Earth's Magnetosphere
A.M. Jorgensen, K. L. Hirsch, M. J. Alothman, S. Braginskya,  and T. A . Fritz  59

Gradient-Induced Errors 
N. Hershkowitz and D. A. Diebold  65

Plasma Gradient Effects on Double Probe Electric Field Measurements
Harri Laakso, Robert F. Pfaff Jr., and Thomas L. Aggson  73

Ionospheric Electric Fields From Stratospheric Balloon-Borne Probes
R. H. Holzworth and E. A. Bering III  79

Magnetic-Field Measurements

Scalar Magnetometers for Space Applications
Fritz Primdahl  85

A History of Vector Magnetometry in Space
Robert C. Snare  101

Magnetic Field Measurements in Orbit and on Planetary Surfaces
Usinga Digital Fluxgate Magnetometer
J. Rustenbach, H. U. Auster, A. Lichopoj, H. Bitterlich, K. H. Fornacon, . Hillenmaier, R. Krause and H. J. Schenk  115

Wave Measurements

Principles of Space Plasma Wave Instrument Design
Donald A. Gurnett  121

Plasma Wave Measurements: Skepticism and Plausibility
Paul M. Kintrier  137

Wave Measurements Using Electrostatic Probes:
Accuracy Evaluation by Means of a Multiprobe Technique
A. L. Eriksson and R. Bostrm  147

Mutual-Impedance Techniques for Space Plasma Measurements
L. R. O. Storey  155

Multiple-Baseline Spaced Receivers
R. F. Pfaff, Jr. and P. A. Marionni  161

The Plasma Frequency Tracker: An Instrument for Probing the Frequency Structure
of Narrow-Band MF/HF Electric Fields
E. J. Lund, M. L. Trimpi, E. H. Gewirtz, R. H. Cook, and J. LaBelle  169

Phase-Path Measurements in Space Using Receivers With GPSC locks
H. G. James  175

A Simulation of the Behavior of a Spherical Probe Antenna in an AC Field
Robert Manning  181

Electromagnetic Emissions in the Ionosphere Pulsed Electron Beam System
A. Kiraga, Z. Klos, V. N. Oraevsky, V. C. Dokukin, and S. A. Pulinets 185

Radio Remote Sensing of Magnetospheric Plasmas
James L . Green, William W. L. Taylor, Shing F . Fung, Robert F. Benson, Wynne Calvert,
Bodo Reinisch, Dennis Gallagher, and Patricia Reiff  193

Direct Measurements of AC Plasma Currents in the Outer Magnetosphere
A. A. Petrukovich, S. A. Romanov, and S. L. Klimov  199

Measuring Plasma Parameters With Thermal Noise Spectroscopy
Nicole Meyer-Vernet, Sang Hoang, Karineis Sautier, Milan Maksimovic, Robert Manning,
Michel Moncuquet, and Robert G. Stone  205

Measurement of Plasma Resistivity at ELF
L. R. O. Storey and Laurent Cairo 211

Spacecraft-Charging Measurements and Effects

A CriticalO verviewo f MeasuremenTte chniqueosf SpacecraCft hargingin SpaceP lasma
Shu T. Lai 217

Results from the NRL Floating Probe on Spear III:
High Time Resolution Measurements of Payload Potential
Carl L. Siefring and Paul Rodriguez  223

How to Really Measure Low E nergy Electrons in Space
Earl E. Scime  229

New Areas

Neutral-Particle Imaging

Imaging Space Plasma With Energetic Neutral Atoms Without Ionization
K. C. Hsieh and C. C. Curtis 235

Neutral Atom Imaging: UV Rejection Techniques
H. O. Funsten, D. J. McComas, and M. A. Gruntman 251

Energetic Neutral Atom Imager on the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid
S. Barabash, O. Norberg, R. Lundin, S. Olsen, K. Lundin, P. C:son Brandt, E. C. Roelof, C. J. Chase, B. H. Mauk, H. Koskinen, and J. Ryno  257

Imaging Low-Energ (keV) Neutral Atoms: Ion-Optical Design
Mark F. Smith, D . J. Chornay, J. W. Keller, F. A. Herrero, M. R. Aellig, P. Bochsler, and P. Wurz 263

Imaging Earth's Magnetosphere: Measuring Energy, Mass, and Direction of Energetic
Neutral Atoms With the ISENA Instrument
S. Orsini, P. Cerulli-lrelli, M. Maggi, A . Milillo, P. Baldetti, G. Bellucci, M. Candidi, G. Chionchio, R. Orfei, S. Livi, I. A. Daglis, B. Wilken, W. Gottler, C. C. Curtis, K. C. Hsieh, J. Sabbagh, E. Flamini, E. C. Roelof, C. Chase, and M . Grande  269

Advances in Low Energy Neutral Atom Imaging
D. J. McComas, H. O. Funsten, and E. E. Scime  275

The Imaging Neutral Camera for the Cassini Missionto Saturn and Titan
D. G. Mitchell, S. M. Krimigis, A. F. Cheng, S. E. J askulek, E. P. Keath, B. H. Mauk, R. W. McEntire, E. C. Roelof, C. E. Schlernm, B. E. Tossman, and D. J. Williams  281

Surface Ionization with Cesiated Converters for Space Applications
M. R. Aellig, P. Wurz, R. Schletti, P. Bochsler, A. G. GhielmettiE, E. G. Shelley, S. A. Fuselier, J. M. Quinn F. Herrero, and M. F. Smith  289

Neutral Atom Imaging of the Plasma Sheet: Fluxes and Instrument Requirements
Michael Hesse and Joachim Birn  297

Multipoint Measurements

A Fully Integrated Micro-Magnetometer/Microspacecraft for Multipoint Measurements:
The Free-Flyer Magnetometer
R. Goldstein, M. Boehm, E. Cutting, F. Fossum, H. Javadi, L. M. Miller, B. Pain, J. E. Randolph, P. R. Turner, and K. Lynch  305

Measuring Magnetic Field Gradients From Four Point Vector Measurements in Space
Krishan K. Khurana, Larry Kepko, and Margaret G. Kivelson  311

Ionospheric Multi-Point Measurements Using Tethered Satellite Sensors
B. E. Gilchrist, R. A. Heelis, and W. J. Raitt  317