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Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas: Particles

Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas: Particles

Robert F. Pfaff (Editor), Joseph E. Borovsky (Editor), David T. Young (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66438-4 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 355 Pages



Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 102.

Space plasma measurements are conducted in a hostile, remote environment. The art and science of measurements gathered in space depend therefore on unique instrument designs and fabrication methods to an extent perhaps unprecedented in experimental physics. In-situ measurement of space plasmas constitutes an expensive, unforgiving, and highly visible form of scientific endeavor.

Robert F. Pfaff, Joseph E. Borovsky, and David T. Young  ix

Space Plasma Particle Instrumentation and the New Paradigm: Faster, Cheaper, Better
David T. Young

What's Wrong With Space Plasma Metrology?
L. R. O. Storey 17

Techniques for Measuring Plasma Particles

Langmuir Probes
Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Ionosphere
Larry H. Brace  23

Current Collection by a Large Langmuir Probe in a Meso-Therma (ram) Plasma
I. Katz, G. A. Jongeward, V. A. Davis, T. L. Morton, and D.C. Ferguson 37

Thermal Plasma Measurementis in Space Using Direct Measurements of Derivatives
of Probe Current-Voltage Characteristics
W. J. Raitt and D.C. Thompson 43

Ambient Electron Density Derived from Differential Potential Measurements
Harri Laakso and Arne Pedersen  49

Fast Electron Temperature Measurements with Langmuir Probes:
Considerations for Space Flight and Initial Laboratory Tests
Carl L. Siefring, William E. Amatuccia, and Paul Rodriguez 55

Retarding-Potential Analyzers

Measurements of Thermal Ion Drift Velocity and T emperature Using Planar Sensors
R. A. Heelis and W. B. Hanson  61

In Situ Detection of Ionospheric Cavitons: Experimental Considerations
P. Rodriguez, C. I. Siefring, D. G. Haas, M. M. Baumback, and D. P. McNutt  73

Flow Velocity Analysis of Suprathermal Ions in the Presence of Ion Temperature Anistropy
Lun C. Tan, Shing F. Fung, and Scott A. Boardsen  79

A Comparison of Solar Wind Parameters from Experiments in the IMP 8 and Wind Spacecraft
A. J. Lazarus and K. I. Paularena  85

Thermal Electron Temperature Measurements from the Freja Cold Plasma Analyzer
D. J. Knudsen, T. D. Phan, M.D. Gladders, and M. J. Greffen  9

Measurement of 025 eV Ions With a Retarding Potential Analyzer on the Cluster Ion
Spectroscopy Experiment
M. P. McCarthy and J. P. McFadden  97

Particle Spectrometers

Kinetic Core Plasma Diagnostics
T. E. Moore, C. J. Pollock, and D. T. Young  105

Design and Application of Imaging Plasma Instruments
C. W. Carlson and J. P. McFadden  125

Time-of-Flight Ion Composition Measurement Technique for Space Plasmas
Martin Wuest  141

Limited Resource Plasma Analyzers: Miniaturization Concepts
Herbert O. Funsten and David J. McComas  157

Novel Measurement of the Pitch-Angle Structure of Auroral Electron Beams
With a Top Hat Spectrometer
J. H. Clemmons, M. H. Boehm, and G. Paschmann  169

The Scanning Thermal Ion Composition Spectrometer (STICS)
V. N. Coffey, T. E. Moore, and C. J. Pollock  175

The Data System for the Freja F7 Electron Spectrometer
M. H. Boehm, H. Hofner, and J. Clemmons  181

The Cassini Ion Mass Spectrometer
D. J. McComas, J. E. Nordholt, J.-J. Berthele Jr., J. M. Illiano, and D. T. Young 187

Solar Wind Concentrator
D. J. McComas, B . L. BarracloughR, . W. Moses, R. C. Wiens, L. Adamic, D. Burnett, and M. Neugebauer  195

Thermal Electron Capped Hemisphere Spectrometer (TECHS) for Ionospheric Studies
C. J. Pollock, V. N. Coffey, J. D. England, N. G. Martinez, T. E. Moore, and M. L. Adrian  201

The Cassini Ion Mass Spectrometer: Performance Metrics and Techniques
J. E. Nordholt, J. J.B erthelJer, D . M. Burr, H. O. Funsten, R. Goldstein, J. M. IIIiano,
K. P. McCabe, D.J. McComas, D. M. Potter, and D. T. Young  209

The DYMIO Ion Mass Spectrometer of the Mars 96 Mission
J.-J.B erthelier, J. M. Illiano, R. R.H odges, J. Covinhes, M. Godefroy, G. Gogly, J. Guillou, F. LeGoff, F. Leblanz,  G. Racic, P. Rouchette, D. Krankowsky, D. Dofflinger, O. Vaisberg, V. Smirnov, and N. Kolesova  215

Rapid Non-scanning Ion Distribution Measurements Using Electrostatic Mirror
and Multichannel Collimator for the INTERBALL and MARS-96 Missions
A. O. Fedorov, O. L. Vaisberg, A. D. Johnstone, A. M. James, R. D. Woodliffe  221

Isochronous Mass Spectrometer for Space Plasma Applications
P. Wurz, L. Gubler, P. Bochsler, and E. Mobius  229

Cassini Plasma Spectrometer Investigation
D. T. Young, B. L. Barraclough, J- J. Berthele Jr, J. M. Blanc, J. L. Burch, A. J. Coates, R. Goldstein, M. Grande, T. W. Hill, J.-M. Illiano, M. A. Johnson, R. E. J ohnson, R. A. Baragiola, Kelha, D. Linder, D. J. McComas, B. T. Narheim, J. E. Nordholt, A. Preece, E. C. Sittier, K. R. Svenes, S. Szalai, K. Szego, P. Tanskanen, and K. Viherkanto 237

The 3-D Plasma Distribution Function Analyzers With Time-of-Flight Mass Discrimination
for Cluster, FAST, and Equator-S
E. Mobius, L. M. Kistler, M. A. Popecki, K. C. Crocker, M. Granoff, Y.J iang, E. Sartori, V. Ye, H. Rorne, J. A. Sauvaud, A. Cros, C. Aoustin, T. Camus, J.-L. Modale, J. Rouzaud, C. W. Carlson, J. P. McFadden, D. Curtis, H. Heetderks, J. Croyle, C. Ingraham, B. Klecker, D. Hovestadt, M. Ertl, F. Eberl, H. Kistle, E. Kenneth, P . Laeverenz, E. Seidenschwang, E.G. Shelley, D. M. Klumpar, E. Hertzberg, G. K. Parks, M. McCarthy, A. Korth, H. Rosenbauer, B. Grove, L. Eliasson, S. Olsen, H. Balsiger, U. Schwab, and M. Steinacher  243

Computer Simulatioinn Designing Electrostatic Optics for Space Plasma Experiments
]. P. McFadden and C. W. Carlson  249

The Cassini CAPS Electron Spectrometer
D. R. Linder, A. J. Coates, R. D. Woodliffe, C. Alsop, A .D. Johnstone, M. Grande, A . Preece, B. Narheim, and D. T. Young  257

The Use of Numerical Simulation in the Design of the Cluster/PEACE "Top Hat"
Analyzer Electron Optics
R. D. Woodliffe and A.D. Johnstone  263

UV Rejection Design and Performance of the PEACE Electrostatic Analyzers
C. Alsop, S. Scott, L. Free  269

Fast and Accurate Infiight Calculations of Electron Space Plasma Parameters
P. J . Carter, R. A. Gowen, B. K. Hancock, C. Alsop, and A . N. Fazakerley  275

A Fast Omni-directional Ion Detector for the Study of Space Plasmas
A. M. James, A .D. Johnstone,  D. M. Walton, O. L. Vaisberg, and A. O. Fedorov 281

A Miniature Retarding Potential Plasma Analyser With a Differential Energy Response
G. Papatheodorou, R. D. Woodliffe, A. D. Johnstone, D. J. Rodgers, D. M. Walton, and A. J. Sims 287

High-speed 2-D Imaging for Plasma Analyzers Using Wedge-and Strip-Anodes
D. M. Walton, A.M. James, J. A. Bowles, and A.D. Johnstone  295

A Calibration Source for Low Energy Electron Detectors
M. Lessard, G. P. Garbe, and R. L. Amoldy  301

Radio-frequency Ion Mass Spectrometer Measurements of Ion Composition, Velocity, and Temperature: The EXOS-D Suprathermal Mass Spectromete
A. W. Yau, E. Drakou, M. J. Greffen, D. J. Knudsena, and E. Sagawa 307

Miniaturized O ptimized S mart S ensor(MOSS) for Space Plasma Diagnostics
D. T. Young, R. P. Bowman, R. K. Black, T. L. Booker, P. J. Casey, G. J. Dirks, D. R. Guerrero, K. E. Smith, J. H. Waite, Jr., and M.P. Wuiest  313


In-situS pacecrafPt articleA utocorrelatioann dC ross-CorrelatioTnh:e orya nd Practice
Nicholas W. Watkins, Sandra C. Chapman, M. Paul Gough, and P. Forsberg 319

Wave-Particle Correlator Instrument Design
R. E. Ergun, J. P. McFadden, and C. W. Carlson 325

Particle Correlatorisn Space: Performance, Limitations, Successes, and the Future
M. P. Gough  333

Energetic-ParticDlee tectors

MeasuringE nergeticE lectrons--WhaWt orksa ndW hat Doesn't
A. L. Vampola  339