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Synthesis of Inorganic Materials, 4th Edition

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Synthesis of Inorganic Materials, 4th Edition

Ulrich S. Schubert, Nicola Hüsing

ISBN: 978-3-527-34457-4 October 2019 424 Pages

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Description

Introduces readers to the field of inorganic materials, while emphasizing synthesis and modification techniques

Written from the chemist's point of view, this newly updated and completely revised fourth edition of Synthesis of Inorganic Materials provides a thorough and pedagogical introduction to the exciting and fast developing field of inorganic materials and features all of the latest developments. New to this edition is a chapter on self-assembly and self-organization, as well as all-new content on: demixing of glasses, non-classical crystallization, precursor chemistry, citrate-gel and Pechini liquid mix methods, ice-templating, and materials with hierarchical porosity.

Synthesis of Inorganic Materials, 4th Edition features chapters covering: solid-state reactions; formation of solids from the gas phase; formation of solids from solutions and melts; preparation and modification of inorganic polymers; self-assembly and self-organization; templated materials; and nanostructured materials. There is also an extensive glossary to help bridge the gap between chemistry, solid state physics and materials science. In addition, a selection of books and review articles is provided at the end of each chapter as a starting point for more in-depth reading.

-Gives the students a thorough overview of the fundamentals and the wide variety of different inorganic materials with applications in research as well as in industry
-Every chapter is updated with new content
-Includes a completely new chapter covering self-assembly and self-organization
-Written by well-known and experienced authors who follow an intuitive and pedagogical approach

Synthesis of Inorganic Materials, 4th Edition is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate students as well as masters and graduate students of inorganic chemistry and materials science.

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Abbreviations xv

1 Introduction 1

2 Solid-State Reactions 5

2.1 Reactions Between Solid Compounds 5

2.1.1 Ceramic Method 5

2.1.1.1 General Aspects of Solid-State Reactions 8

2.1.1.2 Facilitating Solid-State Reactions 12

2.1.2 Mechanochemical Synthesis 16

2.1.3 Carbothermal Reduction 17

2.1.4 Combustion Synthesis 22

2.1.4.1 Solution Combustion Synthesis 29

2.2 Solid–Gas Reactions 31

2.3 Ceramics Processing 34

2.3.1 Sintering 38

2.4 Intercalation Reactions 41

2.4.1 Mechanistic Aspects 47

2.4.2 Preparative Methods 49

2.4.3 Intercalation of Polymers in Layered Systems 51

2.4.4 Pillaring of Layered Compounds 52

Further Reading 55

3 Formation of Solids from the Gas Phase 57

3.1 Chemical Vapour Transport 57

3.1.1 Halogen Lamps 59

3.1.2 Transport Reactions 63

3.2 Chemical Vapour Deposition 65

3.2.1 General Aspects 65

3.2.2 Techniques 73

3.2.3 Metal CVD 78

3.2.3.1 Silicon and Aluminium 79

3.2.3.2 Tungsten 82

3.2.3.3 Copper 83

3.2.4 CVD of Carbon 86

3.2.5 CVD of Binary and Multinary Compounds 89

3.2.5.1 Metal Oxides 90

3.2.5.2 Metal Nitrides 92

3.2.5.3 Metal Chalcogenides and Pnictides 95

3.2.6 Aerosol-Assisted CVD 97

3.2.7 Chemical Vapour Infiltration 99

3.3 Gas-Phase Powder Syntheses 101

Further Reading 110

4 Formation of Solids from Solutions and Melts 113

4.1 Glass 113

4.1.1 The Structural Theory of Glass Formation 115

4.1.2 Crystallization Versus Glass Formation 118

4.1.3 Glass Melting 123

4.1.4 Phase Separation 127

4.1.5 Metallic Glasses 128

4.2 Crystallization from Solution 132

4.2.1 Monodispersity 133

4.2.2 Shape Control of Crystals 135

4.2.3 Non-classical Crystallization 137

4.2.4 Biomineralization 140

4.2.4.1 Biogenic Materials 140

4.2.4.2 Biomineralization 146

4.2.4.3 Bioinspired Materials Chemistry 151

4.3 Electrodeposition 156

4.3.1 Colloids 156

4.3.2 Electrodeposition of Ceramics 159

4.4 Solvothermal Processes 161

4.4.1 Fundamentals 161

4.4.2 Growing Single Crystals 165

4.4.3 Solvothermal Synthesis 168

4.4.3.1 Metal Oxides 169

4.4.3.2 Synthetic Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials 171

4.4.3.3 Zeolites 172

4.5 Sol–Gel Processes 177

4.5.1 The Chemistry of Alkoxide Precursors 181

4.5.2 Hydrolysis and Condensation 185

4.5.2.1 Silica-Based Materials 186

4.5.2.2 Metal Oxide-Based Materials 192

4.5.3 The Sol–Gel Transition (Gelation) 195

4.5.4 Aging and Drying 201

4.5.5 Nonhydrolytic Sol–Gel Processes 203

4.5.6 Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Materials 204

4.5.7 Aerogels 208

Further Reading 214

5 Preparation and Modification of Inorganic Polymers 217

5.1 General Aspects 218

5.1.1 Synthesis and Crosslinking 219

5.1.2 Copolymers 221

5.2 Polysiloxanes (Silicones) 222

5.2.1 Properties and Applications 222

5.2.2 Structure 226

5.2.3 Preparation 227

5.2.4 Curing (‘Vulcanizing’) 231

5.3 Polyphosphazenes 233

5.3.1 Properties and Applications 233

5.3.2 Preparation and Modification 236

5.4 Polysilanes 239

5.4.1 Properties and Applications 239

5.4.2 Preparation 242

5.5 Polycarbosilanes 245

5.6 Polysilazanes and Related Polymers 249

5.7 Polymers with B–N Backbones 252

5.8 Other Inorganic Polymers 253

5.8.1 Other Phosphorus-Containing Polymers 254

5.8.2 Polymers with S–N Backbones 255

5.8.3 Metallopolymers 255

5.9 Polymer-to-Ceramic Transformation 258

Further Reading 264

6 Self-Assembly 267

6.1 Self-Assembled Monolayers 268

6.2 Metal–Organic Frameworks 271

6.2.1 Modularity of the Structures 271

6.2.2 Synthesis and Modification 276

6.3 Supramolecular Arrangements of Surfactants and Block Copolymers 279

6.4 Layer-by-Layer Assembly 282

Further Reading 285

7 Templating 287

7.1 Introduction to Porosity and High Surface Area Materials 289

7.2 Infiltration and Coating of Templates 292

7.2.1 Replica Technique 293

7.2.2 Sacrificial Templates 295

7.2.2.1 Colloidal Crystals 296

7.2.2.2 Hollow Particles 298

7.2.3 Direct Foaming 300

7.2.4 Nanocasting 302

7.3 In Situ Formation of Templates 305

7.3.1 Breath Figures 305

7.3.2 Freeze Casting 306

7.3.3 Supramolecular Assemblies of Amphiphiles 307

7.3.3.1 Synthesis of Periodic Mesoporous Silicas 310

7.3.3.2 Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly 314

7.3.3.3 Incorporation of Organic Groups 315

7.4 Reorganization and Transformation Processes 317

7.4.1 Pseudomorphic Transformation 317

7.4.2 Kirkendall Effect 319

7.4.3 Galvanic Replacement 320

7.4.4 Phase Separation and Leaching 321

Further Reading 325

8 Nanomaterials 327

8.1 Properties of Nanomaterials 329

8.1.1 Properties Due to Surface Effects 329

8.1.2 Properties of Nanocrystalline Materials 331

8.1.3 Catalytic Properties 332

8.1.4 Optical Properties 333

8.1.5 Electrical Properties 336

8.1.6 Magnetic Properties 337

8.2 Syntheses of Nanoparticles 339

8.2.1 Severe Plastic Deformation 340

8.2.2 Formation from Vapours 341

8.2.3 Formation from Solution 343

8.2.4 Surface Modification with Organic Groups 348

8.3 One-Dimensional Nanostructures 352

8.3.1 Nanowires and Nanorods 352

8.3.2 Nanotubes 357

8.3.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes 357

8.3.2.2 Titania Nanotubes 362

8.4 Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials 365

8.4.1 Graphene 365

8.4.2 Other 2D Nanomaterials 369

8.5 Heterostructures and Composites 370

8.5.1 Core–Shell Nanoparticles 370

8.5.2 Vertical 2D Heterostructures 373

8.5.3 Polymer–Matrix Nanocomposites 374

8.5.4 Supported Metal Nanoparticles 376

Further Reading 378

Glossary 381

Index 389

This fourth edition contains the latest developments in the fast developing field and is completely revised and updated. A completely new chapter gives the reader a thorough introduction to self-assembly and self-organization. Other new content includes: demixing of glasses, non-classical crystallization, precursor chemistry, citrate-gel and Pechini methods, ice-templating and materials with hierarchical porosity.