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Drawing from the Model: Fundamentals of Digital Drawing, 3D Modeling, and Visual Programming in Architectural Design



Drawing from the Model: Fundamentals of Digital Drawing, 3D Modeling, and Visual Programming in Architectural Design

Frank Melendez

ISBN: 978-1-119-11563-2 March 2019 352 Pages


Bridges the gap between traditional and contemporary methods of creating architectural design drawings and 3D models through the use of digital tools and computational processes 

This book provides readers with an overview of traditional and contemporary architectural representation methods and offers insight into significant developments in computing as they apply to architectural drawing and modeling. It offers readers a look into recent developments in technologies that have impacted architectural design and representation workflows, and focuses on digital design software used in higher education and industry, including Robert McNeel & Associates Rhinoceros® (Rhino 6 for Windows), Grasshopper®, and Adobe Illustrator® CC. The book covers fundamental methods for digital drawing, 3D modeling, and visual programming through descriptions, examples, and tutorial-based instructions specific to the production of digital design drawings and graphics.

Drawing from the Model: Fundamentals of Digital Drawing, 3D Modeling, and Visual Programming in Architectural Design presents beginning architectural design students and professionals with a broad overview of drawing and modeling in architectural representation, by addressing historical analog methods based on descriptive geometry and projection and transitioning to contemporary digital methods based on computational processes and emerging technologies. The book focuses on digital tools, techniques, and workflows for the production of design drawings; plans, sections, elevations, axonometrics, and perspectives, utilizing contemporary, cutting-edge 2D drawing and 3D modeling, design software. Additionally, visual programming is introduced to address topics of parametric modeling, algorithmic design, computational simulations, physical computing, and robotics, as methods for exploring architectural design and experimental drawing processes. Sections cover Architectural Representation and Digital Technologies; The 3D Modeling Environment and Geometry; Architectural Design Drawings and Graphics; and Computational Design. It features an appendix filled with 10 design drawing and 3D modeling exercises intended as educational and pedagogical examples for readers to practice and/or teach workflows that are addressed in the book. 

  • Acts as an important bridge between analog hand-drawing and digital design drawing techniques, with examples of traditional and contemporary architectural design drawings
  • Provides comprehensive coverage of architectural representation, computing, computer-aided drafting, and 3D modeling tools, techniques, and workflows, for contemporary architectural design drawing aesthetics and graphics
  • Introduces topics of parametric modeling, algorithmic design, computational simulation, physical computing, and robotics through visual programming environments and processes
  • Features tutorial-based instruction using the latest versions of Rhino 6 for Windows, Grasshopper®, Adobe Illustrator® CC, and Arduino 

Drawing from the Model will serve as an excellent resource for beginning architectural design students in higher education and as a helpful reference for professionals in practice, teaching readers beginning and intermediate digital representation methods for the production of architectural design drawings that reflect contemporary aesthetics and graphics. These drawings are generated using 3D modeling and parametric/algorithmic workflows to create linework that is enhanced with digital drawing and graphic design software. Additional workflows include the use of 3D modeling and visual programming environments to explore fundamental concepts of computational simulations, physical computing, and robotics and introductory methods for addressing these topics. 

Foreword viii

Acknowledgments ix

Introduction x

Part 1: Architectural Representation and Digital Technologies

Chapter 1: Architectural Drawing 3

1.1 Drawing and Perception 3

1.2 Drawing from Observation and Imagination 6

1.3 Drawing and Projection 11

1.4 Drawing Methods 15

Endnotes 29

Chapter 2: Architectural Models 30

2.1 Physical Models 30

2.2 3D Models 37

2.3 Digital Fabrication 47

Endnotes 58

Chapter 3: Architecture and Computing 60

3.1 Digital Concepts 60

3.2 Computing in Architecture 63

3.3 Developments in 3D Modeling 66

Endnotes 69

Part 2: 3D Modeling and Geometry

Chapter 4: The 3D Modeling Environment 72

4.1 Surface Types 72

4.2 The Rhinoceros Interface 74

4.3 Units and Scale 79

4.4 Navigation 80

4.5 Visualization Methods 80

Endnote 80

Chapter 5: 2D Drawing 81

5.1 Drafting 81

5.2 Points and Lines 82

5.3 Curve Control Points 88

5.4 Working with Lines and Planar Curves 92

Endnotes 98

Chapter 6: 3D Modeling 99

6.1 Solid Models 99

6.2 Planar and Space Curves 104

6.3 Surfaces 105

6.4 Modeling NURBS Surfaces 109

6.5 Working with NURBS Surfaces 112

Endnotes 118

Chapter 7: Generating Linework 119

7.1 Wireframe Linework 119

7.2 Contour Linework 121

7.3 Paneling Linework 124

Endnote 125

Part 3: Architectural Design Drawings and Graphics

Chapter 8: Generating 2D Projections 128

8.1 Architectural Projections 128

8.2 Setting Up a View 138

8.3 Clipping Planes 139

8.4 Orthographic Projections 140

8.5 Axonometric Projections 145

8.6 Perspective Projections 147

Endnotes 149

Chapter 9: Architectural Design Drawings 150

9.1 Linework Overview 150

9.2 Exporting Linework 153

9.3 The Adobe Illustrator Interface 165

9.4 Setting Up the Page 168

9.5 Line Weightsand Line Types 170

9.6 Lines, Curves, and Shapes 175

9.7 Color 179

9.8 Text 185

9.9 Raster Graphics 188

Endnotes 192

Part 4: Computational Design

Chapter 10: Parameters and Algorithms 195

10.1 Parameters and Constraints 195

10.2 Algorithms 197

Endnotes 198

Chapter 11: Visual Programming 199

11.1 The Grass hopper Interface 199

11.2 Visualization Methods 202

11.3 Components 203

11.4 Component Types 205

Endnotes 216

Chapter 12: Geometric Patterns 217

12.1 Tessellations 217

12.2 Spirals 222

12.3 Pattern Effects 227

Endnotes 235

Chapter 13: Parametric Modeling 236

13.1 Parametric Surfaces 236

13.2 Paneling Surfaces 238

13.3 Modular Assemblies 241

Endnotes 252

Chapter 14: Simulations and Data Visualizations 253

14.1 Simulations 253

14.2 Environmental Simulations 255

14.3 Physics Simulations 262

Endnotes 268

Chapter 15: Robotics and Physical Computing 269

15.1 Robotics 269

15.2 Physical Computing 277

15.3 Arduino Hardware and Software 283

Endnotes 297

Appendix: Design Drawing and Modeling Exercises

Drawing Exercises 298

3D Modeling Exercises 305

Computational Design Exercises 313

Selected Bibliography 321

Index 325