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Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications




Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications

Lambertus A. M. van den Broek, Carmen G. Boeriu, Christian V. Stevens

ISBN: 978-1-119-45043-6 January 2020 520 Pages

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Offers a comprehensive guide to the isolation, properties and applications of chitin and chitosan 

Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications presents a comprehensive review of the isolation, properties and applications of chitin and chitosan. These promising biomaterials have the potential to be broadly applied and there is a growing market for these biopolymers in areas such as medical and pharmaceutical, packaging, agricultural, textile, cosmetics, nanoparticles and more.

The authors – noted experts in the field – explore the isolation, characterization and the physical and chemical properties of chitin and chitosan. They also examine their properties such as hydrogels, immunomodulation and biotechnology, antimicrobial activity and chemical enzymatic modifications. The book offers an analysis of the myriad medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as a review of applications in other areas. In addition, the authors discuss regulations, markets and perspectives for the use of chitin and chitosan.  This important book:

  • Offers a thorough review of the isolation, properties and applications of chitin and chitosan.
  • Contains information on the wide-ranging applications and growing market demand for chitin and chitosan
  • Includes a discussion of current regulations and the outlook for the future

Written for Researchers in academia and industry who are working in the fields of chitin and chitosan, Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications offers a review of these promising biomaterials that have great potential due to their material properties and biological functionalities.

1. Sources of chitin and chitosan and their isolation

1.1. Chitin and chitosan

1.1.1. Chemical structure

1.1.2. Different crystalline forms of chitin

1.2. Sources of chitin and chitosan

1.2.1. Sources of chitin Crustaceans (part of Arthropoda) Insects (part of Arthropoda) Others sources

1.2.2. Sources for chitosan

1.3. Isolation of chitin

1.3.1. Technology principles

1.3.2. Pre-treatment

1.3.3. Demineralisation

1.3.4. Deproteination

1.3.5. Decoloration & other post treatment processes

1.3.6. Isolation of chitin from Crustaceans

1.3.7. Isolation of chitin from insects

1.3.8. Isolation of chitin from other biomass types

1.4. Production of chitosan

1.4.1. Conversion of chitin to chitosan Deacetylation reaction mechanism Chemical deacetylation process Tailoring deacetylation degrees of chitosan Deacetylation drawbacks and alternative methods

1.4.2. Chitosan extracted from Fungi Pretreatment Alkali based “cleaning” Chitosan extraction and post treatment

1.5. Towards commercial applications

1.6. Outlook


2. Methods of isolating chitin from sponges (Porifera)

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Brief overview of classical methods of isolating chitin from invertebrates

2.3. The modern approach to chitin isolation from sponges

2.3.1. Methods of isolating chitin from glass sponges (Hexactinellida)

2.3.2. Methods of isolating chitin from demosponges (Demospongiae) Demineralisation as a crucial step in chitin isolation from demosponges Ultrasonic treatment in the isolation of chitin from demosponges Microwave-assisted methods for chitin isolation from demosponges

2.4. Prospective applications of poriferan chitin

2.4.1. Poriferan chitin and modern bioinspired materials science

2.4.2. Chitinous 3D scaffolds of sponge origin for tissue engineering

2.5. Outlook



3. Physicochemical properties of chitosan and its degradation products

3.1. Physicochemical properties of chitosan

3.1.1. Determination of molar mass Determination of molar mass by GPC/SEC Determination of the viscometric average molar mass

3.1.2. Determination of the deacetylation degree Estimation of DD by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method Estimation of DD by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Determination of DD by potentiometric titration method Determination of DD by a linear potentiometric titration method Determination of DD of the first derivative of the UV spectrum method

3.1.3. Determination of dynamic viscosity

3.1.4. Determination of nitrogen

3.1.5. Determination of ash content

3.1.6. Determination of heavy metal content

3.1.7. Determination of water retention value (WRV)

3.1.8. Determination of solubility in hydrochloric acid

3.1.9. Determination of water content

3.1.10. Determination of protein content

3.1.11. Quantitative determination of chitosan by ninhydrin

3.2. Products of degradation and their application

3.3. Outlook


4. New developments in the analysis of partially acetylated chitosan polymers and oligomers

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Chitosan oligomers

4.2.1. Degree of polymerisation (DP), fraction and pattern of acetylation (FA and PA)

4.3. Chitosan polymers

4.3.1. Molecular weight (MW) / degree of polymerisation (DP) and its dispersity (ÐMW / ÐDP)

4.3.2. Fraction of acetylation (FA) and its dispersity (ÐFA)

4.3.3. Pattern of acetylation (PA)

4.4. Outlook


5. Chitosan-based hydrogels

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Chitosan-based multi-layered hydrogels

5.2.1. Periodic precipitation

5.2.2. Alternating process

5.2.3. Induced by electrical signals

5.2.4. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly

5.2.5. Sequential curing

5.3. Chitin/chitosan physical hydrogels based on alkali/urea solvent system

5.3.1. Chitin hydrogels based on alkali/urea solvent system

5.3.2. Chitosan hydrogels based on alkali/urea solvent system

5.4. Chitosan-based injectable hydrogels

5.4.1. Physical association networks Ionic interactions Hydrogen bonds Hydrophobic associations

5.4.2. Chemical association networks Schiff-base reaction Phenylboronate ester bond Click reaction Light-triggered radical cross-linking Enzyme-mediated gelation

5.4.3. Double-network hydrogels

5.5. Chitosan-based self-healing hydrogels

5.5.1. Physical interactions Ionic interactions Hydrogen bonds Other physical interactions

5.5.2. Dynamic chemical bonds Imine bonds Acylhydrazone bonds Other dynamic covalent bonds

5.6. Chitosan-based shape memory hydrogels

5.6.1. Water / solvent-triggered shape recovery

5.6.2. pH-triggered shape recovery

5.6.3. Ultrasound triggered shape recovery

5.6.4. Self-actuated shape memory hydrogels

5.6.5. Chitosan based hydrogels with triple shape memory effect

5.7. Superabsorbent chitosan-based hydrogels

5.7.1. Crosslinked chitosan-based hydrogels

5.7.2. Hydrogels by graft copolymerization

5.7.3. Chitosan-based composite hydrogels Inorganic-chitosan composites Organic-chitosan composites

5.7.4. Pure chitosan-based materials

5.8. Outlook


6. Beneficial health effects of chitin and chitosan

6.1. Immunomodulatory effects of chitin and chitosan as demonstrated with in vitro studies

6.2. Beneficial health effects mediated by chitin and chitosan as demonstrated with animal studies

6.2.1. Immune modulation

6.2.2. Anti-pathogenic effects

6.2.3. Anti-tumour effects

6.3. Beneficial health effects mediated by chitin and chitosan as demonstrated with clinical trials

6.3.1. Cholesterol reduction and CVD preventive effects

6.3.2. Other health effects

6.4. Requirements to forward the field of study towards the beneficial health effects of chitin and chitosan

6.5. Outlook



7. Antimicrobial properties of chitin and chitosan

7.1. Microbiological activity of chitosan - the mechanism of its antibacterial and antifungal activity

7.2. The use of chitin/chitosan microbiological activity in medicine and pharmacy

7.3. Microbiological activity of chitosan in the food industry

7.4. Microbiological activity of chitosan in paper and textile industries

7.5. Microbiological activity of chitosan in agriculture

7.6. Outlook


8. Enzymes for modification of chitin and chitosan

8.1. CAZymes in chitin degradation and modification

8.1.1. Chitinases

8.1.2. β-N-acetylhexosaminidases

8.1.3. Exo-β-glucosaminidases

8.1.4. Chitosanases

8.1.5. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases

8.1.6. Carbohydrate esterases

8.1.7. Carbohydrate-binding modules

8.2. Modular diversity in chitinases, chitosanases and LPMOs

8.3. Biological roles of chitin-active enzymes

8.4. Microbial degradation and utilization of chitin

8.4.1. Chitin degradation by Serratia marcescens

8.4.2. Chitin degradation by bacteria in the Bacteriodetes phylum

8.4.3. Chitin degradation by Thermococcus kodakaraensis

8.4.4. Chitin degradation by fungi

8.5. Biotechnological perspectives

8.6. Biorefining of chitin-rich biomass

8.7. Outlook


9. Chitin and chitosan as source of biobased building blocks and chemicals

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Chitin conversion into chitosan, chitin oligosaccharides and monosaccharides

9.2.1. Chitosan production

9.2.2. Production of chitooligosaccharides

9.2.3. Production of GlcNAc and GlcN from chitin

9.3. Building blocks for polymers from chitin and its derivatives

9.3.1. Furan-based monomers

9.3.2. Amino alcohol and amino acid building blocks

9.4. Outlook



10. Chemical and enzymatic modification of chitosan to produce new functional materials with improved properties

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Functional chitosan derivatives by chemical and enzymatic modification

10.2.1 Anionic chitosan derivatives

10.2.2. Hydroxyalkyl chitosans

10.2.3. Quaternized and highly cationic chitosan derivatives

10.2.4. Hydroxyaryl chitosan derivatives

10.2.5. Carbohydrate-modified chitosan

10.3. Graft co-polymers of chitosan

10.4. Cross-linked chitosan and chitosan polymer networks

10.5. Outlook


11. Chitosan-based drug delivery systems

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Beneficial effects of chitosan

11.2.1. Interaction with anionic drugs

11.2.2. Mucoadhesive properties

11.2.3. Transfection activity

11.2.4. Efflux pump inhibitory properties

11.2.5. Permeation enhancing properties

11.3. Chitosan – an active polymer for by-passing biological barriers

11.3.1. Skin barrier

11.3.2. Mucosa barrier Nasal mucosa Barriers encountered in oral delivery Vaginal mucosa

11.3.3. Ophthalmic barrier

11.3.4. Blood-brain barrier

11.4. Chitosan-based DDS formulations

11.4.1. Hydrogels

11.4.2. Micro/nanoparticles

11.4.3. Nanofibres

11.4.4. Scaffolds and membranes

11.5. Outlook



12. The application of chitin and its derivatives for the design of advanced medical devices

12.1. Selection of the raw sources. Safety criteria

12.1.1. Aspect of animal tissue originated derivatives

12.1.2. General requirements for chitinous biopolymers applied in designing medical devices

12.1.3. Characterization of the biopolymer for application in wound dressing designing

12.1.4. Aspect of the sterilization of the final wound dressing

12.2. Types of wound dressing consisting of chitin derived biopolymers available on the market

12.3. Performance and safety assessment

12.4. New ideas and concepts

12.5. Risk acceptance and design process aspects

12.6. Outlook



13. Food applications of chitosan and derivatives

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Chitosan and its derivatives as food additive

13.2.1. Antioxidant

13.2.2. Antimicrobial

13.2.3. Stabilizer and thickener

13.3. Functional ingredient and health beneficial effects

13.4. Active Packaging

13.5. Enzyme immobilization

13.6. Encapsulation and delivering of bioactive ingredients

13.7. Adsorption and chelation of toxic and undesirable compounds

13.8. Outlook


14. Potential of chitosans in the development of edible food packaging

14.1. Potential limitations for real introduction into the market

14.1.1. Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS)

14.1.2. Solubility

14.1.3. Source - origin

14.1.4. Structure variability

14.2. Films and coatings for food preservation

14.2.1. Definitions and interests

14.2.2. Main relevant chitosan-based material properties Surface properties/Adhesion properties for coatings Possibility of using the layer-by-layer technique (LbL) Mechanical and barrier properties Inherent antimicrobial properties Carrier properties

14.3. Specific case of chitosan nanoparticles

14.3.1. Chitosan nanoparticles

14.3.2. Chitosan nanoparticles in various edible films

14.3.3. Antimicrobial activities of chitosan nanoparticles in edible films

14.3.4. Toxicity studies of chitosan nanoparticles

14.4. Applications to sensitive real food products

14.4.1. Fruits and vegetables

14.4.2. Meat and meat products

14.4.3. Fish and see food products

14.5. Conclusions


15. The use of chitosan based nanoformulations for controlling fungi during storage of horticultural commodities

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Importance of fruit and vegetables

15.3. Storage disorders and diseases of horticultural products

15.4. Plant fungi inhibition by chitosan application

15.5. Chitosan integrated with other alternative methods for controlling postharvest fungi

15.6. Chitosan-based formulations

15.7. Physiological response and quality retention of horticultural commodities to chitosan coating application

15.8. Influence of chitosan coatings on the shelf life of horticultural products

15.9. Effect of chitosan coatings with additional compounds on quality and microorganisms’ development

15.10. Integration of chitosan nanoparticles into coating formulations and effect on horticultural commodities’ quality and microorganisms’ development

15.11. Outlook



16. Chitosan application in textile processing and fabric coating

16.1. Chitosan in the textile industry

16.2. Textile production

16.3. General test methods

16.4. Fibers and yarns from chitin and chitosan

16.4.1. Chitin and chitosan solubilization for spinning purposes

16.4.2. Chitosan spinning processes

16.4.3. Mechanical properties of chitosan fibers/yarns

16.5. Sizing with chitosan

16.5.1. Miscibility of chitosan with other sizing agents

16.5.2. Viscosity of chitosan-containing sizing agents

16.5.3. Adhesion and wetting

16.5.4. Mechanical-physical properties of chitosan films

16.5.5. Removal and processing of chitosan sizing after weaving

16.6. Chitosan as finishing agent or coating

16.6.1. Chitosan as carrier and linker

16.6.2. Formation of a durable finish with chitosan

16.6.3. Chitosan as active agent Antibacterial coating Removal of heavy metals and dyes Increased dyeability of textiles Improved crease resistance, anti-felting properties and crease recovery angles

16.7. Outlook



17. Chitin and chitosan for water purification

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Wastewater treatment by adsorption

17.2.1. Principle of adsorption process

17.2.2. Adsorption of organic compounds

17.2.3. Adsorption of heavy metals

17.3. Wastewater treatment by coagulation/flocculation

17.4. Wastewater treatment by membrane separation

17.4.1. Principle of ultrafiltration process

17.4.2. Fabrication of ultrafiltration blend membranes

17.4.3. Chitosan enhanced ultrafiltration

17.5 Outlook



18. Chitosan for sensors and electrochemical applications

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Chitosan: a biopolymer with unique properties

18.3. Modification and preparation of chitosan-based materials for electrochemical applications

18.4. The proton conductivity of chitosan

18.5. Selected applications

18.5.1. Electrochemical sensors

18.5.2. Spectroscopic sensors

18.5.3. Other electrochemical devices

18.6. Outlook


19. Marketing and regulations of chitin and chitosan from insects

19.1. Historical outline

19.2. Natural origins of chitin

19.3. Specificities of chitin biopolymer

19.4. Differences between chitin from insects and other sources

19.4.1. Differences of chemical composition of the cuticle

19.4.2. Differences of physical assembly of chains and molecules

19.5. Extraction and purification specificities of chitin from insects

19.5.1. Different cuticle structures and contents of insects

19.5.2. Chemical extraction

19.5.3. Biological extraction

19.5.4. Characterization and transformation into chitosan

19.6. Market opportunities and its regulations

19.6.1. Agriculture applications

19.6.2. Water treatment applications

19.6.3. Materials applications Food packaging Other materials applications

19.6.4. Biomedical applications Human health Animal health 19.7

19.7. Outlook