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Japan and Natural Disasters: Prevention and Risk Management

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Japan and Natural Disasters: Prevention and Risk Management

Jean-Francois Heimburger

ISBN: 978-1-119-54979-6 October 2018 Wiley-ISTE 228 Pages

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Description

Japan is one of those countries most often affected by powerful natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, heavy rains, heavy snowfall, tornadoes, etc. The Archipelago is considered a very advanced country in terms of forecasting, prevention and management of natural disasters. A detailed analysis of the reality of recent years is however necessary. In the run-up to the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, among others, a publication on the subject will inform a large number of people wanting to know more about the risks of natural disasters in Japan.

Foreword xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Introduction xv

Part 1. Hazards, Risks and Disasters 1

Chapter 1. From Hazard to Disaster 3

1.1. Hazard, vulnerability and risk 3

1.2. Disaster 4

Chapter 2. Earth and Fire 7

2.1. Earthquakes 7

2.1.1. Japan, principal seismic country 8

2.1.2. The effects of earthquakes 9

2.2. Volcanoes 13

2.2.1. Japan, principal volcanic country 14

2.2.2. Volcanic risks 16

2.2.3. The benefits of volcanoes 17

Chapter 3. Air and Water 21

3.1. Strong winds 21

3.1.1. Typhoons, spring winds and tornados 22

3.1.2. Risks related to wind 24

3.1.3. The benefits of wind 24

3.2. Rainfall and snowfall 25

3.2.1. Intense rains and flood risk 25

3.2.2. Snow 31

3.3. Heat waves 33

3.3.1. The heat island phenomenon 33

3.3.2. Damage related to heat 34

Part 2. Risk Management 37

Chapter 4. Disaster Prevention 39

4.1. Concepts related to disaster prevention 39

4.2. Laws, plans and budgets 40

4.3. Business continuity plans 43

Chapter 5. Risk Mitigation 45

5.1. Hazard-proof buildings and residences 45

5.1.1. In modern Japan 45

5.1.2. The present day 46

5.2. Securing critical infrastructure 51

5.2.1. A predominantly overhead electrical grid 52

5.2.2. The gas distribution network 53

5.2.3. A water distribution system that is difficult to replace 54

5.2.4. Securing shinkansen high-speed lines 54

5.3. The battle against fires 56

5.3.1. A variable risk 56

5.3.2. Tokyo: a giant tinderbox 58

5.3.3. Taking into account the risk of factory fires 59

5.4. The fight against flooding 59

5.4.1. The fight against coastal flooding 59

5.4.2. The fight against flood rains 64

5.5. The fight against mass movements 66

5.6. The fight against heat islands 67

5.7. The safety of nuclear power plants 69

5.7.1. Establishing new regulations 70

5.7.2. Confronting volcanic eruptions 71

5.7.3. Facing earthquake shocks and tsunamis 72

5.7.4. Facing heavy rains 73

Chapter 6. Disaster Preparedness 75

6.1. Prevention maps and signage 76

6.2. Protection measures and storage 80

6.3. Training, exercises and commemorations 82

6.3.1. School education on disaster prevention 82

6.3.2. Education on disaster prevention for everyone 84

6.3.3. Commemorations 87

6.4. Risk awareness 88

6.4.1. Among Japanese people 88

6.4.2. Among foreigners 89

Chapter 7. Prediction, Monitoring, Warning and Preventive Evacuation 91

7.1. Long-term forecasting 91

7.1.1. Forecasting earthquakes: an impossible dream? 91

7.1.2. Eruptions: limited forecasting 93

7.1.3. The long-term forecasting of meteorological phenomena 95

7.2. Monitoring and short-term forecasting 96

7.2.1. Meteorological monitoring and forecasting 97

7.2.2. Monitoring waterways 98

7.2.3. Monitoring mass movements 99

7.2.4. The detection of seismic and tsunami waves 99

7.2.5. Monitoring volcanic activity 100

7.3. Warnings 102

7.3.1. Earthquake warnings 102

7.3.2. Tsunami warnings 104

7.3.3. Warning in case of volcanic eruption 105

7.3.4. Warnings in case of meteorological phenomena 107

7.3.5. The new emergency warning system 109

7.4. Preventive evacuation 111

7.4.1. Before a violent earthquake 111

7.4.2. Hesitation to evacuate after a violent earthquake in anticipation of tsunami or a fire 112

7.4.3. In case of risk of intense rainfall: to evacuate or not to evacuate? 114

7.4.4. Evacuating in the face of volcanic dangers 116

7.4.5. People requiring special attention 119

7.4.6. Relocation 120

Part 3. Disaster Management 121

Chapter 8. Crisis Management 123

8.1. Mobilization of the authorities . . . . . 124

8.1.1. Crisis management centers 124

8.1.2. Mobilization of rescue teams 125

8.1.3. Management of dead bodies 133

8.2. Mobilization of residents 135

8.2.1. Neighborhood communities and local associations 135

8.2.2. The actions of volunteers 136

8.3. The circulation of information 137

8.3.1. Social networks 137

8.3.2. Rumors 138

8.3.3. Media coverage 140

8.4. Evacuation 143

8.4.1. The initial period in the evacuation centers 144

8.4.2. Mental health 145

8.4.3. Temporary care of non-residents 146

Chapter 9. Restoration and Reconstruction 149

9.1. Rebuilding the lives of disaster victims 149

9.1.1. Life in evacuation centers 149

9.1.2. Security in devastated areas 151

9.1.3. Settlement in temporary housing 152

9.1.4. Prolonged stays in temporary housing 154

9.1.5. Financial tools for reconstructing the lives of disaster victims 155

9.1.6. Moral and psychological support 158

9.2. Restoration and reconstruction of infrastructure 160

9.2.1. Responsibilities and financing 161

9.2.2. Waste management 162

9.2.3. Restoration of vital infrastructure 164

9.2.4. Restoration of public institutions: the example of schools 168

9.2.5. Restoration of businesses 168

9.2.6. Managing reconstruction costs 169

9.3. Demographic and economic development 170

9.4. Political consequences 172

9.5. Memory 173

Conclusion 177

Appendix 179

References 183

Index 203