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Pollution Control Handbook for Oil and Gas Engineering




Pollution Control Handbook for Oil and Gas Engineering

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff

ISBN: 978-1-119-11788-9 April 2016 1408 Pages

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This is a major new handbook that covers hundreds of subjects that cross numerous industry sectors; however, the handbook is heavily slanted to oil and gas environmental management, control and pollution prevention and energy efficient practices. Multi-media pollution technologies are covered : air, water, solid waste, energy. Students, technicians, practicing engineers, environmental engineers, environmental managers, chemical engineers, petroleum engineers, and environmental attorneys are all professionals who will benefit from this major new reference source.

The handbook is organized in three parts. Part A provides an extensive compilation of abbreviations and concise glossary of pollution control and engineering terminology. More than 400 terms are defined. The section is intended to provide a simple look-up guide to confusing terminology used in the regulatory field, as well as industry jargon. Cross referencing between related definitions and acronyms are provided to assist the user.

Part B provides physical properties and chemical safety information. This part is not intended to be exhaustive; however it does provide supplemental information that is useful to a number of the subject entries covered in the main body of the handbook.

Part C is the Macropedia of Subjects. The part is organized as alphabetical subject entries for a wide range of pollution controls, technologies, pollution prevention practices and tools, computational methods for preparing emission estimates and emission inventories and much more. More than 100 articles have been prepared by the author, providing a concise overview of each subject, supplemented by sample calculation methods and examples where appropriate, and references. Subjects included are organized and presented in a macropedia format to assist a user in gaining an overview of the subject, guidance on performing certain calculations or estimates as in cases pertinent to preliminary sizing and selection of pollution controls or in preparing emissions inventories for reporting purposes, and recommended references materials and web sites for more in-depth information, data or computational tools. Each subject entry provides a working overview of the technology, practice, piece of equipment, regulation, or other relevant issue as it pertains to pollution control and management. Cross referencing between related subjects is included to assist the reader to gain as much of a practical level of knowledge.

Preface xi

About the Author xiii

PART A: Abbreviations and Glossary 1

PART B: Physical Properties and Safety Data 71

PART C: Macropedia of Subjects 81

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) 83

Air Dispersion Modeling 95

Air Pollution Control Device 109

Air Quality Index 117

Anaerobic Lagoons 131

AP-42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors 137

API Gravity 141

API Separator 143

Baghouses/Fabric Filters 149

Barrel Burning 163

Belt Filter Presses 167

Best Available Control Technology (BACT) 175

Best Management Practices 181

Bhopal Disaster 185

Blowdown and Purging (Natural Gas Industry Practices) 191

Calpuff 203

Carbon Adsorption 205

Carbon Capture and Sequestration 223

Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technology 235

Clean Air Act 241

Compressors 245

Control Efficiency 279

Cooling Towers (WET) 303

Criteria Air Pollutants (CAPs) 325

Cyclone Separators 333

Deep Well Waste Injection 345

Dioxins 355

Dissolved Gas Flotation 367

Electrostatic Precipitators 375

Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act 409

Emission Factors 417

Emissions Inventory 425

Environmental Management System 439

Environmental Site Assessment 443

EPA Environmental Voluntary Programs 457

Explosive Limits 461

Faculative Ponds 467

Filter Presses 473

Flares 487

Flue Gas Desulfurization 503

Fly Ash 513

Fugitive Dust Emissions 517

Contents vii

Fugitive Emissions (Leaking Equipment) 547

Natural Gas Production Facilities (Emission Factors) 577

Gasification 585

Glycol Dehydrators 599

Gravity Settling Chambers 603

Green Chemistry Institute 611

Greenhouse Gases 613

Hazardous Air Pollutants 621

Haze 629

Heater-Treaters 637

HEPA Filtration 645

Hydraulic Fracturing 661

Ideal Gas Law 697

Impingement-Plate/Tray Tower Scrubbers 701

Indoor Air Quality 705

Indoor Air Quality Testing 711

Inertial Separators 721

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) 745

Ion Exchange 749

Leak Detection and Repair 757

Life Cycle Costing Analysis 781

MACT (NESHAP) Standards 801

Mass Balance Method 823

Membrane Filtration 831

National Air Toxics Assessments 841

National Ambient Air Quaility Standards (NAAQS) 845

Odor Control 855

Odor Threshold 875

Oil and Gas Production Facilities (Emission Factors) 901

Petroleum Bulk Plants and Terminals (Emission Factors) 905

Phase Diagram 911

Photochemical Smog 913

Pneumatic Controllers (Natural Gas Industry) 917

Pneumatic Devices 925

Pollution Prevention Practices –

Organic Chemicals Industry Sector 931

Pollution Prevention Practices – Petroleum Refining 947

Pressure Relief Valves and Regulators 955

Pressure Separators 969

Preventive Maintenance 975

Radionuclides 983

Radon 987

Reciprocating Engines (Natural Gas-Fired) 995

Regenerative Incinerator 1001

Remote Sensing and Monitoring 1013

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1023

Responsible Care Program 1031

Rotary Drum Filters 1035

Settling Ponds and Sedimentation 1043

Settling 1047

Snubbing 1073

Stack Emissions Testing 1087

Stokes’s Law 1101

Storage Tank Emissions (Oil and Condensate Tanks) 1107

Storage Tank Emissions (General) 1139

Thermal Incinerator 1159

Thermodynamic Processes 1173

Thickeners and Clarifiers 1179

Title V Permits 1189

Total Reduced Sulfurs 1195

Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) 1201

Toxics Release Inventory 1209

Transport Properties 1241

UV Disinfection 1255

Vapor Cloud Explosions and BLEVEs 1261

Vapor Intrusion 1283

Vapor Pressure 1305

Vapor Recovery Units 1311

Venturi Scrubber 1323

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 1331

Waste Heat to Power 1341

Well Swabbing 1351

Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization 1367

Wet Scrubbing Technology 1373