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Baking Technology and Nutrition: Towards a Healthier World

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Baking Technology and Nutrition: Towards a Healthier World

Stanley P. Cauvain, Rosie H. Clark

ISBN: 978-1-119-38716-9 July 2019 232 Pages

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Description

A new study of the challenges presented by manufacturing bakery products in a health-conscious world

The impact of bakery products upon human nutrition is an increasingly pressing concern among consumers and manufacturers alike. With obesity and other diet-related conditions on the rise, the levels of salt, fat, and sugar found in many baked goods can no longer be overlooked. Those working in the baking industry are consequently turning more and more to science and technology to provide routes toward healthier alternatives to classic cake, bread, and pastry recipes.        

With Baking Technology and Nutritional Research, renowned food scientist Stanley P. Cauvain and co-author Rosie H. Clark present an innovative and much-needed study of the changes taking place in the world of baking. Their discussion focuses on the new avenues open to bakers looking to improve the nutritional value of their products and encompasses all related issues, from consumer preferences to the effects of nutritional enhancement upon shelf-life. Featuring an abundance of new research and insights into the possible future of modern baking, this unique text:

  • Offers practical guidance on developing, delivering, and promoting high-nutrition bakery products
  • Discusses reducing ingredients such as salt, fat, and sugar for improved nutrition while preserving quality and consumer acceptability
  • Explores how wheat-based products can be ideal vehicles for improving the nutrition of major sectors of populations
  • Suggests real-world solutions to problems rising from poorly defined quality guidelines and inadequate dialogue between bakers and nutritionists

Baking Technology and Nutrition is an indispensable and timely resourcefor technologists, manufacturers, healthcare practitioners, or anyone else working in today’s food and nutrition industries. 

Preface xi

1 An Introduction to the History of the Manufacture of Bakery Products and Relevant Studies in Human Nutrition 1

1.1 The Historical Development of Bakery Products 1

1.2 Historical Links Between Baked Products, Nutrition and Health 8

1.3 A Brief History of Concerns Over Fibre, Fat, Sugar and Salt in Baked Products 11

1.4 Current Nutrition and Health Concerns 15

1.5 Improving the Micronutrient Content of Wheat‐Based Products 17

1.6 Conclusions 19

References 21

2 Summary of the Manufacture of Bakery Products and Their Key Characteristics 23

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 A Synopsis of Common Bread and Fermented Product Types, and Their Manufacturing Processes 25

2.3 The Bread Manufacturing Processes 27

2.3.1 Sour‐Dough Processes 28

2.3.2 Straight Dough Bulk Fermentation 28

2.3.3 Sponge and Dough 29

2.3.4 Rapid Processing (No‐Time Dough) 30

2.3.5 Mechanical Dough Development 30

2.3.6 Dough Processing from Divider to Prover 31

2.3.7 Expansion in the Prover and Structure Setting in the Oven 32

2.4 A Synopsis of Biscuit, Cookie and Cracker Types and Their Manufacturing Processes 32

2.5 A Synopsis of Pastry Types and Manufacturing Processes 35

2.6 A Synopsis of Cake and Sponge Types and Manufacturing Processes 37

2.7 The Key Sensory Properties of Bakery Products 39

2.8 Shelf‐Life of Bakery Products 43

2.9 Nutritional Profiles of Common Bakery Products 46

2.10 Conclusion 48

References 49

3 Delivering Health Benefits via Bakery Products 51

3.1 Micronutrients 51

3.2 Vitamins and Antioxidants 52

3.3 Minerals 55

3.4 Fortification of Flour and Bakery Products 55

3.5 Ancient Grains 58

3.6 Functional Foods 60

3.7 Prebiotics and Probiotics 61

3.8 ‘Botanicals’ 62

3.9 Allergens and Special Diets 63

3.10 Anti‐nutrients and Undesirable Compounds in Raw Materials 65

3.11 Undesirable Compounds Which May Form During Processing and Baking 68

3.12 Conclusions 70

References 71

4 Drivers for Improved Health and Nutrition via Bakery Products 75

4.1 Introduction 75

4.2 Dietary Contributions and Potential Health Impacts 77

4.2.1 Salt 77

4.2.2 Fats 78

4.2.3 Carbohydrates 81

4.2.4 Sugars 82

4.2.5 Fibre 83

4.2.6 Satiety 86

4.2.7 Glycaemic Index and Glycaemic Load 86

4.2.8 Protein 87

4.2.9 Total Energy 88

4.3 Lifestyle Choices and Bakery Products 90

4.3.1 Organic 90

4.3.2 Vegetarian and Vegan 91

4.4 The Role of Legislation 92

4.5 The Role of Food Retailers 94

4.6 The Food Manufacturer 94

4.7 Conclusions 95

References 96

5 Barriers to the Acceptance of Bakery Products with Improved Nutrition 99

5.1 The Nature of the Barriers 99

5.2 Government‐ Led Interventions on Fortification 101

5.3 Legislative Barriers 102

5.4 Consumer Expectations and Preferences 104

5.5 Consumer and Social Barriers 109

5.6 Economic and Commercial Barriers 111

5.7 Technology Barriers 114

5.8 Sustainability Barriers 115

5.9 Media Generated Barriers 116

5.10 Conclusions 116

References 117

6 The Opportunities for Developing Improved Nutrition via Bakery Products 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Ingredient Declarations and Analytical Considerations 120

6.3 The Reformulation Conundrum 123

6.4 Impacts on Product Microbial Shelf‐Life 126

6.5 Reducing Fat and Changing Type 128

6.5.1 Recipe Fat Reduction 128

6.5.2 Changing Fat Type 129

6.5.3 Fat Replacement 131

6.5.4 Lipase Enzymes 132

6.5.5 Emulsifiers 132

6.5.6 Carbohydrate‐Based Replacers 134

6.5.7 Protein‐Based Replacers 135

6.5.8 Fat/Lipid‐Based Replacers 136

6.5.9 ‘Fat‐Free’ 136

6.6 Reducing Sugar and Changing Sugar Type 136

6.6.1 Recipe Sugar Reduction 137

6.6.2 Changing Sugar Type 139

6.6.3 Alternatives to Sugars 142

6.6.4 ‘Sugar‐Free’, No Added Sugar and No Refined Sugar 143

6.7 Reducing Energy (Calories) 144

6.8 Reducing Salt (Sodium) 145

6.9 Increasing Dietary Fibre 148

6.10 Fortification for Health Benefits 149

6.11 Conclusions 150

References 151

7 Approaches to Development of Nutritionally Enhanced Bakery Products 153

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Empirical Rules and Product Development 154

7.3 Mathematics and Product Development 156

7.4 Visualisation and Simulation Techniques for Product Development 159

7.5 The Role of Product Evaluation in the Development of Nutritionally Enhanced Bakery Products 163

7.6 Examples of Linking Sensory and Objectively Measured Qualities with Bakery Products 166

7.7 Strategies for Developing Product and Process Developments to Deliver Enhanced Nutrition 170

7.8 Finding a ‘Starting Point’ 173

7.9 Continuing the Development Process 176

7.10 Identifying Processing Options 178

7.11 Verifying Nutritional Targets 180

7.12 Conclusions 182

References 183

8 Communicating Relevant Messages 185

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Communicating Nutrition and Health Information on Relevant Food Sources 187

8.3 Communication of Basic Dietary Information by Food Manufacturers 189

8.4 Macronutrient Claims and Product Composition 192

8.5 Micronutrient Claims 194

8.6 Communication of Non‐specific Health and Dietary Benefits by Food Manufacturers 195

8.7 Communications Between Health Specialists and the Baking Industry 198

8.8 Communications and Consumers 201

8.9 Media Communicated Information and Disinformation 203

8.10 Conclusions 204

References 205

Glossary 207

Index 213