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Iceland: Tectonics,Volcanics, and Glacial Features

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Iceland: Tectonics,Volcanics, and Glacial Features

Tamie J. Jovanelly

ISBN: 978-1-119-42709-4 December 2019 American Geophysical Union 224 Pages

Hardcover
Pre-order
£151.00

Description

A regional guide to the dramatic forces that have shaped the Icelandic landscape over 30 million years

Iceland’s formation and ongoing evolution presents a masterclass in geophysical processes. Iceland: Tectonics, Volcanics, and Glacial Features presents a regional guide to the landscape of this unique island. Accessible to academics, students, novice geologists, and tourists alike, chapters reflect the most popular way to explore the island, beginning in the southwest region and ending in the northwest.  

Volume highlights include:

  • Overview of Iceland’s geologic history
  • Dynamic tectonic setting that has shaped the island
  • Landscape features of active and extinct volcanoes
  • Impact of glaciation in the past and present
  • Geologic hazards and their monitoring
  • Harnessing geothermal energy

Contents

PREFACE. 5

INTRODUCTION: THE GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK OF ICELAND.. 8

MODERN DAY TECTONIC SETTING.. 10

BACKGROUND GEOLOGY. 11

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF TECTONICS ON THE REYKJANES PENINSULA AND SOUTHWESTERN REGION.. 15

1.1 Krýsuvík Valley and Lake Kleifarvatn. 17

1.2 Blue Lagoon and Geothermal Energy. 18

1.3 Mid Ocean Ridge/Grindavik. 19

1.4 Þingvillir/Hengill 20

1.5 Geysir/Gulfoss/Selfoss. 23

Gulfoss. 24

Outset Box 1.1 Hellisheiði Geothermal Power Station- Emily Larrimore. 25

CHAPTER 2. OVERVIEW OF TECTONICS IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHEASTERN REGIONS. 28

2.1 Faults and Fault Complexes of the Tertiary Basalts. 31

CHAPTER 3. OVERVIEW OF TECTONICS IN THE NORTHEASTERN REGION.. 33

3.1 Flateyjarskagi and Tjörnes Peninsulas. 35

3.2 Lake Mývtan and Mývtan Fires. 37

3.3 Krafla Fires. 39

3.4 Detifoss/Selfoss. 40

Outset Box 3.1 The Miocene and Pliocene fossils of the Tjörnes Peninsula. 41

CHAPTER 4. OVERVIEW OF TECTONICS IN THE WESTERN REGION.. 45

4.1 Snaefellnes Syncline and Borgarfjörður Anticline. 46

VOLCANICS OVERVIEW... 48

VOLCANIC MORPHOLOGY. 51

Stratovolcanoes and associated features. 51

Shield volcanoes and associated features. 52

SUBGLACIAL ERUPTIONS. 54

Subglacial features. 55

TEPHRACHRONOLOGY. 57

VOLCANIC REPOSE. 58

VOLCANIC EXPLOSIVITY INDEX. 59

CHAPTER 5. OVERVIEW OF VOLCANICS ON THE REYKJANES PENINSULA AND SOUTHWESTERN REGION.. 62

5.1 Volcanism of the Western Volcanic Zone. 62

5.2 Volcanism of the Reykjanes Peninsula. 64

5.3 Esja Mountain and extinct volcanic systems (Kollafjörður amd Stardalur). 66

5.4  Rauðhólar Rootless cone complex. 66

5.5 Hengill and Ƥhingvillir. 67

CHAPTER 6. OVERVIEW OF VOLCANICS IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHEASTERN REGIONS. 69

6.1 Grímsvötn, Bárðarbunga, and Kverkfjökull 72

6.2 Katla and Eyjafjallajökull 76

6.3 Eldgjá and Laki (Skaftár) Fires. 83

6.4 Dyrhólaey lava cave. 86

6.5 Hekla- The Queen. 87

6.6 Ƥjórsárdalur Valley. 91

6.7 Surtsey volcanic island. 93

CHAPTER 7. OVERVIEW OF VOLCANICS IN THE NORTH AND NORTHEASTERN REGIONS. 98

7.1 The Dynáufjöll massif complex and Askja. 100

The Askja 1874-1876 Event. 103

The Askja 1961 Event and Today. 106

7.2 Krafla. 109

The Krafla Fires of 1975-1984. 111

Krafla and Geothermal Energy. 114

7.3 Volcanic Features at Mývtan. 117

7.4 Tinná Central Volcano and other extinct volcanoes in the region. 123

CHAPTER 8. OVERVIEW OF VOLCANICS IN THE WESTERN REGION.. 126

8.1 The Snæfellsjökull Volcanic System: A Journey to the Center. 128

8.2 Ljósufjöll 132

8.3 Helgrindur. 134

8.4 Vatnshellir Lava Tube. 134

Outset Box 8.1 Living with Volcanoes- Emily Larrimore. 135

GLACIAL HISTORY OVERVIEW... 139

MODERN CLIMATE OVERVIEW... 144

GLACIAL MORPHOLOGY. 147

Formation of ice. 147

Glaciers and associated landforms. 148

Periglacial environments and associated landforms. 152

Glacial mass balance. 152

Glaciation and Volcanics. 156

CHAPTER 9. OVERVIEW OF GLACIATION ON THE REYKJANES PENINSULA AND SOUTHWESTERN REGION.. 158

9.1 Langjökull 159

9.2 Hofsjökull 163

9.3 Kerlingarfjöll 166

Outset Box 9.1: The use of oxygen isotopes as climate change indicators - Emily Larrimore. 167

Outset Box 9.2: Oxygen Isotope Fractionation - Emily Larrimore. 169

CHAPTER 10. OVERVIEW OF GLACIATION IN THE SOUTH AND SOUTHEASTERN REGIONS. 172

10.1 Vatnajökull 177

10.2  Breiðárlón  and Jökulsárlón. 180

10.3 Lakes under the ice: Grímsvötn, Kverjökull, and Barðarbunga. 182

10.4 Eyjafjallajökull 190

CHAPTER 11. OVERVIEW OF GLACIATION IN THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN REGIONS. 193

11.1 Vestfirðir Peninsula and Drangajökull 197

11.2 Tröllaskagi and Skagi Peninsulas and Norðurlandsjöklar. 204

11.3 Snæsfellnes Peninsula and Snaefellsjökull 208

Outset Box 11.1 Snow-avalanches and debris-flows- Tamie Jovanelly. 210

FIGURES, TABLES, PHOTOS. 212

GLOSSARY. 324

REFERENCES. 337