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Leading Collaborative Architectural Practice




Leading Collaborative Architectural Practice

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The groundbreaking guide to modern leadership in architectural practice

Leading Collaborative Architectural Practice is the leadership handbook for today's design and construction professionals. Endorsed by the American Institute of Architects, this book describes the collaborative approach to leadership that is becoming increasingly prevalent in modern practice; gone are the days of authoritative "star" architects— today's practice is a brand, and requires the full input of every member of the team. This book builds off of a two-year AIA research project to provide a blueprint for effective leadership: the ability, awareness, and commitment to lead project teams who work together to accomplish the project's goals. Both group and individual hands-on exercises help facilitate implementation, and extensive case studies show how these techniques have helped real-world firms build exemplary success through collaborative teamwork and leadership.

Highly illustrated and accessible, this approach is presented from the practicing architect's point of view—but the universal principles and time-tested methods also provide clear guidance for owners, contractors, engineers, project managers, and students.

  • Build a culture of collaboration, commitment, and interpersonal awareness
  • Adopt effective leadership techniques at the team, project, or practice level
  • Handle conflict and resolve communication issues using tested approaches
  • Learn how real-world projects use effective leadership to drive success

The last decade has seen a sea-change in architectural leadership. New practices no longer adopt the name and identity of a single person, but create their own identity that represents the collaborative work of the entire group. Shifts in technology and changing workplace norms have made top-down management structures irrelevant, so what does it now mean to lead? Forefront presents effective contemporary leadership in the architectural practice, and real-world guidance on everyday implementation.

Foreword vi

Acknowledgments ix

Introduction xiii

Leadership and Collaboration xiii

Conceptual Framework xiv

Why Collaborate? xiv

How This Book Is Structured xv

Who Should Read This Book? xvi

Part 1 Collaboration in Context 1

Chapter 1 Collaboration in Practice 3

The Changing Landscape of Architectural Practice 3

The Rise of Integrated and Collaborative Project Delivery 6

Mutually Beneficial Collaboration 11

Leadership and Followership 15

The Promise versus Reality of Integrated Project Delivery—Interview with Renée Cheng 17

Chapter 2 Collaborative Project Delivery Tools 19

Traditional versus Collaborative Project Delivery 19

Collaborative Design-Bid-Build 20

Collaborative CM at-Risk 22

Collaborative Design-Build 24

Multi-Party Agreements 25

Integrated Project Delivery and Collaboration 27

The Value of Collaboration 28

When Not to Collaborate 30

Case Study Excerpt: Wayne N. Aspinall Federal Building & U.S. Courthouse 31

Chapter 3 Creating Collaborative Environments 39

Collaborative Infrastructure 39

Physical Space 39

Social Structures 42

Training and Support 43

Technology Tools 44

Leaders’ Roles 47

Collaboration Takes Commitment, Not Contracts—Interview with Stephen Van Dyck 48

Part 2 Collaboration Tools and Tactics 53

Chapter 4 Building Collaborative Teams 55

Assembling and Organizing Teams 55

Selection of Team Members 56

Diversity and Inclusion in Teams 61

Organizing Teams 62

Coordination among Subteams 64

Developing Team Culture 66

Case Study Excerpt: Odegaard Library Renovation 68

Chapter 5 Maintaining Collaborative Teams 77

Project Team Size 77

Cross-Functional Teams 79

Stability of Teams 80

Assessment 83

Coaching and Feedback 84

Collaborative from the Start—A Conversation with Clare Olsen and Caryn Brause 84

Chapter 6 Development Stages 87

Stages of Team Development 87

Forming 87

Storming 88

Norming 89

Performing 90

Adjourning 90

Team Development Model 91

Case Study Excerpt: Global Center for Health and Innovation 92

Chapter 7 Team Behaviors 101

Negative Team Behavior 101

Fear of Conflict 103

Lack of Commitment 103

Lack of Accountability 104

Inattention to Results 104

Loss of Trust 105

Effective Team Behaviors 106

Situational Team Organization 107

Collective Decision Making 107

Case Study: Allegheny Health Network Health + Wellness Pavilion 108

Chapter 8 Collaboration Tools 119

Rational versus Intuitive Processes 119

Lean Strategies 119

Lean Tools 120

Choosing by Advantages 122

A3 Reports 123

Decision Matrix 124

Decision Tree 125

Ishikawa (Fishbone) Diagram 125

BIM Scorecard 126

Case Study: Alta Bates Summit Medical Center 127

Part 3 Leadership Effectiveness 135

Chapter 9 Leadership Effectiveness 137

Foundations of Leadership 137

Trait versus Behavior 138

Ability 138

Awareness 139

Commitment 139

Conscious/Competent 140

Leading Together—Interview with Patricia Rhee 141

Chapter 10 Leadership Development 145

Farm Gate Model 145

Interpersonal Awareness 147

Individual Awareness Tools 148

Team Awareness Tools 149

Case Study Excerpt: Bullitt Center 149

Chapter 11 Leadership Stages of Development 157

Guildhall Model 157

Development Stages 158

Combined Development Model 159

Case Study Excerpt: ASU Memorial Union 159

Chapter 12 Task-Relationship Behavior 169

Leader in Development 169

Direction and Feedback 169

Stage Assessment 171

Task-Relationship 172

Practice-Based Scenario: The Story of Frank and Denise 174

Chapter 13 Cognitive Styles 179

Understanding Cognition 179

Adaptive Problem Solving 182

Innovative Problem Solving 182

Bridgers as Leaders 184

Adaptive and Innovative Team Cultures 185

Reflective Environments 185

Case Study Excerpt: The Center for Building Energy Science & Engineering (Building 661) 187

Chapter 14 Leadership Styles 197

Authoritarian/Autocratic 197

Participative/Democratic 198

Delegative/Free Reign 198

Style-to-Situation 199

Positive and Negative Reinforcement 200

Task and Relationship 202

Leadership in Development—Rick del Monte and Fred Perpall 203

Part 4 Communication and Conflict 207

Chapter 15 Communication Fundamentals 209

Components of Communication 209

Barriers to Communication 211

Listening and Feedback 212

Verbal and Nonverbal Communication 213

Communication Assessment 216

Chapter 16 Johari Window Model 221

Open Self 221

Hidden Self 221

Blind Self 222

Unknown Self 222

Self-Awareness Assessment 223

Chapter 17 Feedback and Motivation 225

Steps to Constructive Feedback 225

Feedback Style 226

Maslow’s Theory 227

Herzberg’s Theory 228

Adequate Resources 229

The Motivation Process 229

Modes of Motivation 231

Motivation to Innovation 232

Motivation and Maintenance 233

Chapter 18 Conflict Management 235

Healthy Conflict 235

Conflict Management Styles 236

Conflict Management Model 239

Conflict Management Leadership 241

Conflict Management and Resolution 242

Part 5 Leadership in Practice 249

Chapter 19 The Value of Inclusion 251

The Changing Workforce 252

Diversity and Creativity 253

Empathy 254

Generational Traits 254

Gender and Leadership 259

Race and Leadership 263

Building Leaders and Design/Build—Interview with Emilie Taylor Welty 264

Chapter 20 Leadership and Change 271

Foundations of Innovation 272

Complex Environments 274

Strategic Leadership 274

Change Management 276

Social Leadership 277

Thought Leadership 278

Case Study Excerpt: Girl Scouts of Utah Summer Cabins 279

Chapter 21 Practice Leadership 287

Culture and Organization 287

Practice Management Components 288

Managing Meetings 289

Structure and Business Models 290

The Leadership Cycle 291

Training and Development 293

Reflective Practice—Interview with Z Smith 294

Conclusion Toward a More Collaborative Practice 299

Bibliography 301

Index 311