Skip to main content

Space-Time Coding for Broadband Wireless Communications




Space-Time Coding for Broadband Wireless Communications

Georgios B. Giannakis, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaoli Ma, Sheng Zhou

ISBN: 978-0-471-46287-3 February 2007 488 Pages

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.


This is the first book on space-time coding for wireless communications, one of the most promising techniques for ensuring bandwidth efficiency. The text describes theoretical principles as well as engineering applications; discusses key criteria in the design of practical space-time codes; and covers single-carrier and multi-carrier transmission for both single- and multi-user communications.


1. Motivation and Context.

1.1 Evolution of Wireless Communication Systems.

1.2 Wireless Propagation Effects.

1.3 Parameters and Classification of Wireless Channels.

1.3.1 Delay Spread and Coherence Bandwidth.

1.3.2 Doppler Spread and Coherence Time.

1.4 Providing, Enabling and Collecting Diversity.

1.4.1 Diversity Provided by Frequency-Selective Channels.

1.4.2 Diversity Provided by Time-Selective Channels.

1.4.3 Diversity Provided by Multi-Antenna Channels.

1.5 Chapter-by-Chapter Organization.

2. Fundamentals of ST Wireless Communications.

2.1 Generic ST System Model.

2.2 ST Coding viz Channel Coding.

2.3 Capacity of ST Channels.

2.3.1 Outage Capacity.

2.3.2 Ergodic Capacity.

2.4 Error Performance of ST Coding.

2.5 Design Criteria for ST Codes.

2.6 Diversity and Rate: Finite SNR viz Asymptotics.

2.7 Classification of ST Codes.

2.8 Closing Comments.

3. Coherent ST Codes for Flat Fading Channels.

3.1 Delay Diversity ST Codes.

3.2 ST Trellis Codes.

3.2.1 Trellis Representation.

3.2.2 TSC ST Trellis Codes.

3.2.3 BBH ST Trellis Codes.

3.2.4 GFK ST Trellis Codes.

3.2.5 Viterbi Decoding of ST Trellis Codes.

3.3 Orthogonal ST Block Codes.

3.3.1 Encoding of OSTBCs.

3.3.2 Linear ML Decoding of OSTBCs.

3.3.3 BER Performance with OSTBCs.

3.3.4 Channel Capacity with OSTBCs.

3.4 Quasi-Orthogonal ST Block Codes.

3.5 ST Linear Complex Field Codes.

3.5.1 Antenna Switching and Linear Precoding.

3.5.2 Designing Linear Precoding Matrices.

3.5.3 Upper-Bound on Coding Gain.

3.5.4 Construction based on Parameterization.

3.5.5 Construction Based on Algebraic Tools.

3.5.6 Decoding ST Linear Complex Field Codes.

3.5.7 Modulus-Preserving STLCFC.

3.6 Linking OSTBC, QO-STBC and STLCFC Designs.

3.6.1 Embedding MP-STLCFC into the Alamouti Code.

3.6.2 Embedding 2 x 2 MP-STLCFCs into OSTBC.

3.6.3 Decoding QO-MP-STLCFC.

3.7 Closing Comments.

4. Layered ST Codes.

4.1 BLAST Designs.

4.1.1 D-BLAST.

4.1.2 V-BLAST.

4.1.3 Rate Performance with BLAST Codes.

4.2 ST Codes Trading Diversity for Rate.

4.2.1 Layered ST Codes with Antenna-Grouping.

4.2.2 Layered High-Rate Codes.

4.3 Full-Diversity Full-Rate ST Codes.

4.3.1 The FDFR Transceiver.

4.3.2 Algebraic FDFR Code Design.

4.3.3 Mutual Information Analysis.

4.3.4 Diversity-Rate-Performance Trade-offs.

4.4 Numerical Examples.

4.5 Closing Comments.

5. Sphere Decoding and (Near-) Optimal MIMO Demodulation.

5.1 Sphere Decoding Algorithm.

5.1.1 Selecting a Finite Search Radius.

5.1.2 Initializing with Unconstrained LS.

5.1.3 Searching within the Fixed-Radius Sphere.

5.2 Average Complexity of SDA in Practice.

5.3 SDA Improvements.

5.3.1 SDA with Detection Ordering and Nulling-Cancelling.

5.3.2 Schnorr-Euchner Variate of SDA.

5.3.3 SDA with Increasing Radius Search.

5.3.4 Simulated Comparisons.

5.4 Reduced-Complexity IRS-SDA.

5.5 Soft Decision Sphere Decoding.

5.5.1 List Sphere Decoding (LSD).

5.5.2 Soft SDA using Hard SDAs.

5.6 Closing Comments.

6. Non-Coherent and Differential ST Codes for Flat Fading Channels.

6.1 Non-Coherent ST Codes.

6.1.1 Search-Based Designs.

6.1.2 Training-Based Designs.

6.2 Differential ST Codes.

6.2.1 Scalar Differential Codes.

6.2.2 Differential Unitary ST Codes.

6.2.3 Differential Alamouti Codes.

6.2.4 Differential OSTBCs.

6.2.5 Cayley Differential Unitary ST Codes.

6.3 Closing Comments.

7. ST Codes for Frequency-Selective Fading Channels: Single-Carrier Systems.

7.1 System Model and Performance Limits.

7.1.1 Flat-Fading Equivalence and Diversity.

7.1.2 Rate Outage Probability.

7.2 ST Trellis Codes.

7.2.1 Generalized Delay Diversity.

7.2.2 Search-Based STTC Construction.

7.2.3 Numerical Examples.

7.3 ST Block Codes.

7.3.1 Block Coding with Two Transmit-Antennas.

7.3.2 Receiver Processing.

7.3.3 ML Decoding based on the Viterbi Algorithm.

7.3.4 Turbo Equalization.

7.3.5 Multi-Antenna Extensions.

7.3.6 OSTBC Properties.

7.3.7 Numerical Examples.

7.4 Closing Comments.

8. ST Codes for Frequency-Selective Fading Channels: Multi-Carrier Systems.

8.1 The General MIMO OFDM Framework.

8.1.1 OFDM Basics.

8.1.2 MIMO OFDM.

8.1.3 STF Framework.

8.2 ST and SF Coded MIMO OFDM.

8.3 STF Coded OFDM.

8.3.1 Subcarrier Grouping.

8.3.2 GSTF Block Codes.

8.3.3 GSTF Trellis Codes.

8.3.4 Numerical Examples.

8.4 Digital Phase Sweeping and Block Circular Delay.

8.5 Full-Diversity Full-Rate MIMO OFDM.

8.5.1 Encoders and Decoders.

8.5.2 Diversity and Rate Analysis.

8.5.3 Numerical Examples.

8.6 Closing Comments.

9. ST Codes for Time-Varying Channels.

9.1 Time-Varying Channels.

9.1.1 Channel Models.

9.1.2 Time-Frequency Duality.

9.1.3 Doppler Diversity.

9.2 Space-Time-Doppler Block Codes.

9.2.1 Duality-Based STDO Codes.

9.2.2 Phase Sweeping Design.

9.3 Space-Time-Doppler FDFR Codes.

9.4 Space-Time-Doppler Trellis Codes.

9.4.1 Design Criterion.

9.4.2 Smart-Greedy Codes.

9.5 Numerical Examples.

9.6 Space-Time-Doppler Differential Codes.

9.6.1 Inner Codec.

9.6.2 Outer Differential Codec.

9.7 ST Codes for Doubly-Selective Channels.

9.7.1 Numerical Examples.

9.8 Closing Comments.

10. Joint Galois-Field and Linear Complex-Field ST Codes.

10.1 GF-LCF ST Codes.

10.1.1 Separate versus Joint GF-LCF ST Coding.

10.1.2 Performance Analysis.

10.1.3 Turbo Decoding.

10.2 GF-LCF ST Layered Codes.

10.2.1 GF-LCF ST FDFR Codes: QPSK Signalling.

10.2.2 GF-LCF ST FDFR Codes: QAM Signalling.

10.2.3 Performance Analysis.

10.2.4 GF-LCF FDFR versus GF-Coded V-BLAST.

10.2.5 Numerical Examples.

10.3 GF-LCF Coded MIMO OFDM.

10.3.1 Joint GF-LCF Coding and Decoding.

10.3.2 Numerical Examples.

10.4 Closing Comments.

11. MIMO Channel Estimation and Synchronization.

11.1 Preamble-Based Channel Estimation.

11.2 Optimal Training-Based Channel Estimation.

11.2.1 ZP-Based Block Transmissions.

11.2.2 CP-Based Block Transmissions.

11.2.3 Special Cases.

11.2.4 Numerical Examples.

11.3 (Semi-)Blind Channel Estimation.

11.4 Joint Symbol Detection and Channel Estimation.

11.4.1 Decision-Directed Methods.

11.4.2 Kalman Filtering Based Methods.

11.5 Carrier Synchronization.

11.5.1 Hopping Pilot Based CFO Estimation.

11.5.2 Blind CFO Estimation.

11.5.3 Numerical Examples.

11.6 Closing Comments.

12. ST Codes with Partial Channel Knowledge: Statistical CSI.

12.1 Partial CSI Models.

12.1.1 Statistical CSI.

12.2 ST Spreading.

12.2.1 Average Error Performance.

12.2.2 Optimization based on Average SER Bound.

12.2.3 Mean-Feedback.

12.2.4 Covariance-Feedback.

12.2.5 Beamforming Interpretation.

12.3 Combining OSTBC with Beamforming.

12.3.1 Two-Dimensional Coder-Beamformer.

12.4 Numerical Examples.

12.4.1 Performance with Mean-Feedback.

12.4.2 Performance with Covariance-Feedback.

12.5 Adaptive Modulation for Rate Improvement.

12.5.1 Numerical Examples.

12.6 Optimizing Average Capacity.

12.7 Closing Comments.

13. ST Codes With Partial Channel Knowledge: Finite-Rate CSI.

13.1 General Problem Formulation.

13.2 Finite-Rate Beamforming.

13.2.1 Beamformer Selection.

13.2.2 Beamformer Codebook Design.

13.2.3 Quantifying the Power Loss.

13.2.4 Numerical Examples.

13.3 Finite-Rate Precoded Spatial Multiplexing.

13.3.1 Precoder Selection Criteria.

13.3.2 Codebook Construction: Infinite-Rate.

13.3.3 Codebook Construction: Finite-Rate.

13.3.4 Numerical Examples.

13.4 Finite-Rate Precoded OSTBC.

13.4.1 Precoder Selection Criterion.

13.4.2 Codebook Construction: Infinite-Rate.

13.4.3 Codebook Construction: Finite-Rate.

13.4.4 Numerical Examples.

13.5 Capacity Optimization with Finite-Rate Feedback.

13.5.1 Selection Criterion.

13.5.2 Codebook Design.

13.6 Combining Adaptive Modulation with Beamforming.

13.6.1 Mode Selection.

13.6.2 Codebook Design.

13.7 Finite-rate Feedback in MIMO OFDM.

13.8 Closing Comments.

14. ST Codes in the Presence of Interference.

14.1 ST Spreading.

14.1.1 Maximizing the Average SINR.

14.1.2 Minimizing the Average Error Bound.

14.2 Combining STS with OSTBC.

14.2.1 Low-Complexity Receivers.

14.3 Optimal Training with Interference.

14.3.1 LS Channel Estimation.

14.3.2 LMMSE Channel Estimation.

14.4 Numerical Examples.

14.5 Closing Comments.

15. ST Codes for Orthogonal Multiple Access.

15.1 System Model.

15.1.1 Synchronous downlink.

15.1.2 Quasi-synchronous uplink.

15.2 Single-Carrier Systems: STBC-CIBS-CDMA.

15.2.1 CIBS-CDMA for User Separation.

15.2.2 STBC Encoding and Decoding.

15.2.3 Attractive Features of STBC-CIBS-CDMA.

15.2.4 Numerical Examples.

15.3 Multi-Carrier Systems: STF-OFDMA.

15.3.1 OFDMA for User Separation.

15.3.2 STF Block Codes.

15.3.3 Attractive Features of STF-OFDMA.

15.3.4 Numerical Examples.

15.4 Closing Comments.