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Stainless Steel Surfaces: A Guide to Alloys, Finishes, Fabrication and Maintenance in Architecture and Art

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Stainless Steel Surfaces: A Guide to Alloys, Finishes, Fabrication and Maintenance in Architecture and Art

L. William Zahner

ISBN: 978-1-119-54158-5 August 2019 368 Pages

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Description

A full-color guide for architects and design professionals to the selection and application of stainless steel 

Stainless Steel Surfaces offers an authoritative and comprehensive guide to the application of stainless steel to create surfaces for building exteriors, interiors, and art finishes. The first volume in Zahner's Architectural Metals Series, the book is a visual, full-color book filled with the information needed to ensure proper maintenance of stainless steel and suggestions for fabrication techniques. The author—a noted expert in the field—covers a range of topics including the history of the metal, choosing the right alloy, information on a variety of surface and chemical finishes, and facts on corrosion resistance.

Stainless Steel Surfaces is filled with illustrative case studies that offer strategies for designing and executing successful projects using stainless steel. All the books in the Zahner's Architectural Metals Series offer in-depth coverage of today's most commonly used metals in architecture and art. This important book:

•    Contains a comprehensive guide to the use and maintenance of stainless steel surfaces in architecture and art

•    Features full-color images of a range of stainless steel finishes, colors, textures, and forms

•    Presents case studies with performance data that feature strategies on how to design and execute successful projects using stainless steel

•    Offers methods to address corrosion, before and after it occurs

•    Discusses the environmental impact of stainless steel from the creation process through application

•    Explains the significance of the different alloys and the forms available to the designer

•    Discusses what to expect when using stainless steel in various exposures

Architecture professionals, metal fabricators, developers, architecture students and instructors, designers, and artists working with metals, Stainless Steel Surfaces offers a logical framework for the selection and application of stainless steel in all aspects of architecture.

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Introduction to Stainless Steel 1

Stainless Steel 1

History 9

Modern Production 10

Environmental, Safety, and Hygiene 13

Stainless Steel for the Arts 15

Chapter 2 Alloys 23

Alloys 23

Alloying Elements 24

Tempers and Heat Treatment 27

Stainless Steel Classifications 28

Austenitic Stainless Steels 29

Magnetism and Magnetic Permeability 31

Ferritic Stainless Steels 32

Martensitic Stainless Steels 32

Precipitation-Hardened Stainless Steel 33

Duplex Stainless Steels 34

Choosing the Right Alloy 35

Architectural Alloys: Wrought Sheet, Plate, Bar, Rod, Pipe, Tube, and Wire 38

Architectural Cast Alloys 52

Chapter 3 Surface Finishes 57

Metallic Luster 57

Finish on the Surface 58

Natural Color 59

One Side Prime for Flat Products 63

The Need for a Clean Surface 64

Anti-Fingerprint Coatings 65

Post-Finishing Protection 65

Stainless Steel Finishes 66

Mill Finishes 67

Mechanical Finishes 73

Directional Finishes 74

Non-Directional Finishes 82

Custom Mechanical Finishes 89

Highly Custom Surface Finishes 91

Mirror Finishes 93

Plastic Deformation Surface Finishes 95

“Water” Finish 96

Embossing 96

Selective Embossing 98

Coining 100

Chemical Finishes: Coloring of Stainless Steel 101

Electropolishing: Brightening the Finish 115

Etching 118

Bluing 119

Chapter 4 Expectations of the Stainless Steel Surface 123

Reflectivity: Brightness and Intensity 123

Surface Finish and Reflectivity 135

Arriving At Objective Criteria 143

Flatness 145

The True Nature of the Metal 147

Effects of Fabrication 149

Effects of Temperature Changes 152

The Relationship Between Thickness and Flatness 155

Prototype Viewing Protocol 157

Texturing to Improve Flatness 157

Standards of Flatness 159

Grain Direction 164

Grain Size and Surface Clarity 167

Alloying Constituents and Surface Clarity 168

External Variables: Energy of Light Source 170

External Variables: Angle of Illumination 172

Surface Finish and Perceived Distortion 172

Arriving at the Best Possible Outcome 174

Chapter 5 Designing with Available Forms 177

Basic Forms of Stainless Steel 178

The Stainless Steel Mill 179

Mill Packaging Requirements 183

Sheet: The Architectural Form of Stainless Steel 184

Stainless Steel Sheet Dimensions 185

Perforated and Expanded Stainless Steel 190

Plate 196

Bar and Rod 197

Cold Drawn Stainless Steel Shapes 199

Tubing and Pipe 199

Wire, Woven Wire, and Screens 201

Extrusion 203

Structural Shapes 204

Designing with Stainless Steel Structural Forms 206

Powder, Bead, and Shot 208

Foil 209

Cast Stainless Steel 209

Chapter 6 Fabrication Processes 213

Working With Stainless Steel 213

Temporary Protective Coatings 215

Cutting Stainless Steel 216

Forming 220

V-Cutting 226

Hot Forming 227

Forging 228

Machining 229

Soldering and Brazing 230

Welding 232

Casting 243

Chapter 7 Corrosion Resistance Characteristics 249

Passivity 251

The Chloride Ion 252

Alloying Elements 253

Environmental Exposures 254

Corrosion 256

Passivation 273

Cleaning a Contaminated Surface 273

Conditions That Promote Corrosion in Stainless Steels 275

Chapter 8 Maintaining the Stainless Steel Surface 277

The New Surface 277

Basic Cleaning of a Stainless Steel Surface 277

Achieving Physical Cleanliness 279

Achieving Chemical Cleanliness 287

Achieving Mechanical Cleanliness 314

Distortion Due to Fabrication and Welding 323

Distortion from Cold Forming Operations 326

Hail Damage and Small Dent Repair 326

Appendix A Stainless Steel Specifications Specific to Architectural and Art

Applications (US and European) 331

Standard-Setting Organizations (Partial List) 331

General Specifications 332

Plate, Sheet, and Strip Wrought Products 332

Tubing 333

Bolts 333

Wire and Rod 333

Castings 334

Bars and Shapes 334

Welding 334

Appendix B Relative Cost of Different Finishes of Wrought Stainless Steel 335

Appendix C Relative Gloss/Reflectivity of Different Stainless Steel Finishes 337

Appendix D List of Designers and Finishes Shown in the Book 339

Further Reading 343

Index 345