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Gas-Phase Pyrolytic Reactions: Synthesis, Mechanisms, and Kinetics

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Gas-Phase Pyrolytic Reactions: Synthesis, Mechanisms, and Kinetics

Nouria A. Al-Awadi

ISBN: 978-1-118-05747-6 November 2019 304 Pages

Hardcover
Pre-order
£110.00
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Description

Offers a physical organic chemistry and mechanistic perspective of the chemistry of thermal processes in the gas phase

The book looks at all aspects of the chemical processing technique called gas-phase pyrolysis, including its methodology and reactors, synthesis, reaction mechanisms, structure, kinetics, and applications. It discusses combinations of pyrolytic reactors with physiochemical techniques, routes for and reactions for the synthesis of organic compounds, and the control of reaction rates.

Gas-Phase Pyrolytic Reactions: Synthesis, Mechanisms, and Kinetics starts with in-depth chapter coverage of static pyrolysis, dynamic flow pyrolysis, and analytical pyrolysis. It then examines synthesis and applications, including flash vacuum pyrolysis in organic synthesis, elimination of HX, elimination of CO and CO2, pyrolysis of Meldrum’s acid derivatives, and elimination of N2. A chapter on reaction mechanism comes next and includes coverage of retero-ene reaction and reactive intermediates. Following that are sections covering: structure/reactivity correlation, functional group & structural frame interconversions; gas-phase pyrolysis of hydrazones and phosphorus Ylides; and more.

  • Deals with a growing area of chemistry and engineering interest that fits under the practices of green and sustainable chemistry
  • Addresses several important aspects: methodology and reactors, synthesis, reaction mechanisms, structure, kinetics, and applications
  • Reviews general methods of pyrolysis techniques
  • Sets out the fundamentals and advantages of gas-phase pyrolysis in a way that illustrates its wide potential applications

Gas-Phase Pyrolytic Reactions: Synthesis, Mechanisms, and Kinetics will appeal to organic chemists, physical organic chemists, chemical engineers and anyone interested in green/sustainable chemistry, chemical synthesis, or process chemistry.

Preface

Abbreviations

Chapter 1. Methodologies and Reactors

1.1 Static Pyrolysis 2

1.1.1 Sealed-tube Reactor 3

1.1.2 Kinetic Studies 4

1.1.3 Static Apparatus7

1.2 Dynamic Flow Pyrolysis11

1.2.1 Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis 11

1.2.2 Synthetic Application of Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis 13

1.2.3 Gas-Flow Pyrolysis versus Static Pyrolysis 16

1.2.4 Limitations of Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis 17

1.2.5 Spray Pyrolysis18

1.2.6 Falling Solid Pyrolysis 21

1.3 Analytical Pyrolysis 22

1.3.1 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography 22

1.3.2 Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry 25

1.3.3 Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis with Spectroscopy 27

1.3.4 Catalytic Gas-Phase Pyrolysis 27

References 30

Chapter 2. Synthesis and Applications

2.1 Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis in Organic Synthesis 2

2.2 Elimination of HX 4

2.3 Elimination of CO and CO2 7

2.4 Pyrolysis of Meldrum’s Acid Derivatives 13

2.5 Elimination of N2 17

2.5.1 Deazetization Reactions of Allylic Diazenes 18

2.5.2 Pyrolysis of Benzotriazole Derivatives 20

2.5.3 Pyrolysis of Triazine Derivatives 24

References 25

Chapter 3. Reaction Mechanism

3.1 Retero-ene Reaction2

3.1.1 Acetylenic Compounds 3

3.1.2 Acyl Group Participation 4

3.1.3 Cyanates and Isocyanates 4

3.1.4 Esters 6

3.1.5 Amides 9

3.1.5.1 Aetamides and Thioacetamides 9

3.1.5.2 Benzamides12

3.1.5.3 N-Substituted Amides 13

3.2 Reactive Intermediates14

3.2.1 Radicals 14

3.2.2 Diradicals 16

3.2.3 Benzynes 17

3.2.3.1 o-Benzynes18

3.2.3.2 m- and p-Benzynes 19

3.2.4 Carbenes 20

3.2.5 Nitrenes 25

References 30

Chapter 4. Structure / Reactivity Correlation

4.1 Di-Ketones 2

4.2 Cyanoketones 7

4.3 Ketoamides 8

4.4 Benzotriazoles 10

4.5 Hammett Correlation in Gas-Phase Pyrolysis 17

4.6 Alkoxy versus Amino Group 23

4.6.1 Neighboring Group Participation 24

4.6.2 Amino Esters27

References 30

Chapter 5. Functional Group & Structural Frame Interconversions

5.1 Functional Group Interconversion 2

5.1.1 Thermal Retro-ene Reactions 2

5.1.1.1 α-Substituted Carboxylic Acids 6

5.1.1.2 α -Substituted Esters 18

5.1.1.3 β-Substituted Carboxylic Acids 21

5.2 Structural Frame Interconversion 23

5.2.1 Alkyl Heterocycles25

References 27

Chapter 6. Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Hydrazones

6.1 Substituted Phenylhydrazones 3

6.2 N-arylidineamino Heterocycles 11

6.3 Arylidene Hydrazine Heterocycles 15

References 22

Chapter 7. Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Phosphorus Ylides

7.1 Synthetic Application2

7.2 Haloalkynes 5

7.3 Terminal Alkynes 8

7.4 Diynes 12

7.5 Enynes and Dienes14

7.6 Selective Elimination of Ph3PO from Di- and Tri-oxo Stabilized Phosphorus Ylides 16

7.7 Sulfonyl Stabilized Phosphorus Ylides 20

7.8 Sulfinyl Stabilized Phosphorus Ylides 24

7.9 Kinetic and Thermal Reactivity of Carbonyl Stabilized Phosphonium Ylides 26

References 35