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Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture

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Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture

David J. Hosken (Editor), John Hunt (Editor), Nina Wedell (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-31368-7 February 2019 272 Pages

Description

Provides a broad snapshot of recent findings showing how the environment and genes influence behavior

The great debate of nature versus nurture rages on — but our understanding of the genetic basis of many behaviors has expanded over the last decade, and there is now very good evidence showing that seemingly complex behaviours can have relatively simple genetic underpinnings, but also that most behaviours have very complicated genetic and environmental architecture. Studies have also clearly shown that behaviors, and other traits, are influenced not just by genes and the environment, but also by the statistical interaction between the two. This book aims to end the nature versus nurture argument by showing that behaviors are nature and nurture and the interaction between the two, and by illustrating how single genes can explain some of the variation in behaviors even when they are seemingly complex.

Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture puts to rest the nature versus nurture dichotomy, providing an up-to-date synopsis of where we are, how far we've come and where we are headed. It considers the effects of a dual-inheritance of genes and culture, and genes and social environment, and highlights how indirect genetic effects can affect the evolution of behavior. It also examines the effect of non-self genes on the behavior of hosts, shines a light on the nature and nurturing of animal minds and invites us to embrace all the complexity nature and nurture generates, and more. 

  • Explores exciting new findings about behavior and where we go from here
  • Features contributions by top scholars of the subject
  • Seeks to end the nature versus nurture debate forever

Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture is a unique, and eye-opening read that will appeal to Ph.D. Students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in evolution and behavior. Additionally, the book will also be of interest to geneticists, sociologists and philosophers.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1 Nature, Nurture, and Nature-by-Nurture – Killing the Dichotomy 1
David J. Hosken, John Hunt and Nina Wedell

Acknowledgements 7

References 7

2 Ultimate (Re)Thinking for Behavioural Biology 11
Sasha R. X. Dall, John M. McNamara and Alastair J. Wilson

2.1 Evolutionary Reasoning in Modern Behavioural Biology 13

2.2 A Quantitative Genetic View of Behavioural Evolution 15

2.3 Short-Term Ultimate Reasoning: Behavioural Genetics in a Functional Context 20

2.4 Concluding Remarks 21

References 22

3 How the Dual Inheritance of Genes and Culture Shapes Behaviour: A Critical Review with a Focus on Human Culture and Behavioural Diversity 27
Thomas E. Currie

3.1 Culture and Behaviour 27

3.2 Cultural Evolution 30

3.2.1 Processes of Cultural Evolution 31

3.2.1.1 Variation 31

3.2.1.2 Inheritance 32

3.2.1.3 Selection and Fitness 34

3.3 Insights from Cultural Evolutionary Approaches 37

3.3.1 Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour 37

3.4 Cultural History 39

3.5 Culture and the Evolution of Co-operation 42

3.6 Gene–Culture Coevolution 45

3.7 Conclusion 48

Acknowledgements 50

References 50

4 Beyond Genes and Environments: Indirect Genetic Effects and the Evolution of Behaviour 61
John Hunt, James Rapkin, Clarissa M. House and Alastair J. Wilson

4.1 A Quantitative Genetic View of Behavioural Evolution without IGEs 63

4.2 Adding IGEs to the Traditional Theory 66

4.2.1 'Trait-Based' and 'Variance Partitioning' Models of IGEs 67

4.3 From Theory Towards Empiricism 68

4.3.1 Using Trait-Based Models 69

4.3.2 Using Variance Partitioning Models 71

4.3.3 Is Knowledge of the Interactor Trait Critical to Your Study? 72

4.4 Empirical Evidence for IGEs on Behavioural Traits 73

4.4.1 Social Plasticity of Behaviour is Widespread 73

4.4.2 Does Social Plasticity Generate IGEs on Focal Behaviour? 78

4.5 What are the Evolutionary Consequences of IGEs? 81

4.5.1 What about the Role of Social Selection? 82

4.5.2 What Happens When Ψ is Also Able to Evolve? 83

4.5.3 Can IGEs Influence Other Important Evolutionary Processes? 83

4.5.4 What are the Longer Term Consequences of IGEs? 85

4.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 85

References 87

5 Genes and Behaviour 93
Chelsea A. Weitekamp and Laurent Keller

5.1 Genetic Architecture of Phenotypic Traits 94

5.2 Effects of Single Genes on Behaviour 95

5.2.1 The Foraging Gene and Food-Search Behaviour 97

5.2.2 Arginine Vasopressin Receptor and Pair-Bonding Behaviour 98

5.2.3 Neuropeptide Y Homolog, Sensory Neurons, and Social Feeding Behaviour 98

5.3 Effects of Supergenes on Behaviour 99

5.3.1 Social Organization in Ants 100

5.3.2 Alternative Mating Tactics in Birds 100

5.4 Evolvability of Behaviour-Associated Genes 101

5.5 Are Behavioural Traits Unique? 101

5.6 Conclusion 103

Acknowledgements 103

References 103

6 Genes and Environments in Drosophila Sex 111
David J. Hosken, Amanda Bretman, Stephen F. Goodwin and C. Ruth Archer

6.1 Some Challenges 111

6.2 Introducing Drosophila 112

6.3 The Behaviours 112

6.4 The Genes 113

6.4.1 Single Genes 113

6.4.2 Many Additive Genes 115

6.5 The Environments and the Interactions 116

6.5.1 Social Environments 116

6.5.2 Abiotic Environments 119

6.6 Conclusions 120

Acknowledgements 120

References 120

7 Nature and Nurture in Parental Care 131
Nick J. Royle and Allen J. Moore

7.1 Genetics Underlying Parental Care 133

7.1.1 Quantitative Genetic Studies 134

7.1.2 Molecular Genetic Studies 135

7.2 Parental Care is Environmentally Sensitive 137

7.2.1 Hormonal Mediation of Parental Care 138

7.3 Gene by Family Environment Interactions 141

7.3.1 GxFE Studies 141

7.3.2 Heritability of the Social Environment and IGEs 143

7.3.3 Coadaptation and Correlational Selection (Social Epistasis as a Special Case of GxFE) 145

7.4 Summary and Conclusion 147

References 148

8 The Effect of Non-Self Genes on the Behaviour of Hosts 157
Nina Wedell

8.1 What are Non-Self Genes (NSGs)? 158

8.2 Indirect Effects of NSGs 158

8.3 Direct Effects of NSGs 159

8.4 Host Responses 160

8.5 Odour is a Key Signal 161

8.6 Kin Recognition 162

8.7 Mate Choice and Reproductive Behaviour 163

8.8 Aggressiveness 166

8.9 Activity, Aggregation, and Dispersal 167

8.10 Feeding 168

8.11 Learning and Memory 170

8.12 Summary and Conclusion 171

References 172

9 The Nature and Nurturing of Animal Minds 181
Alex Thornton and Neeltje J. Boogert

9.1 Cognition Evolves 183

9.1.1 Adaptive Cognitive Specializations 183

9.1.2 Heritability of Cognitive Traits 185

9.2 Cognition Develops 187

9.2.1 Cognitive Consequences of a Poor Start in Life 187

9.2.2 Cognitive Silver Spoons 188

9.2.3 Adaptive Developmental Plasticity in Cognition 189

9.3 Cognitive Reaction Norms: Mind-Moulding Gene-by-Environment Interactions 191

9.3.1 The Mystery of (the Lack of) Cognitive Resilience 192

9.3.2 Practice Makes Perfect: Genetic Quality and Cognitive Silver Spoons 193

9.3.3 Cultural and Epigenetic Inheritance of Cognitive Traits 194

9.3.4 Gene by Environment and Methodological Issues in Comparative Cognition 194

9.4 Conclusion 195

References 196

10 Evolution and Human Behaviour: Helping to Make Sense of Modern Life 203
Louise Barrett and Gert Stulp

10.1 Understanding Interaction 204

10.2 Understanding the Scope and Limits of an Evolutionary Approach 205

10.3 Evolutionary Thinking as Puzzle Solving 206

10.4 Recognizing the Consequences of Our Actions 208

10.5 Thinking Differently about Fertility Control 210

10.6 Modern Contraception and Mate Choice 212

10.7 Evolution and Assisted Reproductive Technologies 214

10.8 No Free Lunch 216

10.9 Conclusion 217

References 218

11 Next-Gen and the Study of Behaviour 223
Simone Immler

11.1 Current Sequencing Technologies 223

11.1.1 Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) and Linkage Mapping 224

11.1.1.1 Microarrays 226

11.1.1.2 RAD Sequencing 227

11.1.1.3 Exome Sequencing 227

11.1.1.4 Whole-Genome Sequencing 227

11.1.2 Gene Expression Analyses 228

11.1.2.1 RNA Sequencing (RNAseq) 228

11.1.3 Epigenetic Analyses 228

11.1.3.1 CHiP Sequencing (CHiPseq) 228

11.1.3.2 Bisulfite Sequencing 229

11.2 Caveats and Challenges and Some Solutions 229

11.2.1 Solid Phenotype 229

11.2.2 Sample Quality 230

11.2.3 Sampling 230

11.2.4 Libraries and Sample Pools 230

11.2.5 Reference Genome 231

11.2.6 Sample Size 232

11.2.7 Replication 232

11.2.8 Coverage 232

11.2.9 Pilot Studies 233

11.2.10 Time and Planning 233

11.2.11 Bioinformatics 233

11.2.12 Collaboration 234

11.3 Linking Behavioural Phenotypes to Genotypes using NGS 234

11.4 What’s Next 237

11.4.1 Understanding the Non-Coding Regions of the Genome 238

11.4.2 Gene Knock-down and Knock-out in Non-Model Organisms 238

11.5 Concluding Remarks 240

References 240

12 Nature-Nurture in the Twenty-First Century 245
Nina Wedell, John Hunt and David J. Hosken

Acknowledgements 249

References 249

Index 253