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Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists, 2nd Edition

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Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists, 2nd Edition

C. Nick Hewitt, Andrea V. Jackson

ISBN: 978-1-119-51522-7 February 2020 Wiley-Blackwell 320 Pages

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Description

Enlightens readers on the realities of global atmospheric change, including global warming and poor air quality

Climate change and air pollution are two of the most pressing issues facing Mankind. This book gives undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and professionals working in the science and policy of pollution, climate change and air quality a broad and up-to-date account of the processes that occur in the atmosphere, how these are changing as Man’s relentless use of natural resources continues, and what effects these changes are having on the Earth’s climate and the quality of the air we breathe.

Written by an international team of experts, Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists, 2nd Edition provides an excellent overview of our current understanding of the state of the Earth’s atmosphere and how it is changing. The first half of the book covers: the climate of the Earth; chemical evolution of the atmosphere; atmospheric energy and the structure of the atmosphere; biogeochemical cycles; and tropospheric chemistry and air pollution. The second half looks at cloud formation and chemistry; particulate matter in the atmosphere; stratospheric chemistry and ozone depletion; boundary layer meteorology and atmospheric dispersion; urban air pollution; and global warming and climate change science.

  • Provides succinct but detailed information on all the important aspects of atmospheric science for students
  • Offers the most up-to-date treatment of key issues such as stratospheric chemistry, urban air pollution, and climate change
  • Each chapter includes basic concepts, end-of-section questions, and more in-depth material
  • Features contributions from the best experts and educators in the field of atmospheric science

Atmospheric Science for Environmental Scientists, 2nd Edition is an invaluable resource for students, teachers, and professionals involved in environmental science. It will also appeal to those interested in learning how the atmosphere works, how humankind is changing its composition, and what effects these changes are leading to.

List of contributors

Preface

1 The Climate of the Earth
John Lockwood

1.1 Basic Climatology

1.2 General atmospheric circulation

1.3 Palaeoclimates

1.4 Polar climates

1.5 Temperate latitude climates

1.6 Tropical climates

References

Further reading

Questions

2 Chemical evolution of the atmosphere
Richard Wayne

2.1 Creation of the planets and their earliest atmosphere

2.2 Earth’s atmosphere before life began

2.3 Comparison of Venus, Earth and Mars

2.4 Life and Earth’s atmosphere

2.5 Carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere

2.6 The rise of oxygen concentrations

2.7 Protection of life from ultraviolet radiation

2.8 The Great Oxidation Event and related issues

2.9 The future

References

Further reading

Questions

3 Atmospheric energy and the structure of the atmosphere
Hugh Coe

3.1 The vertical structure of the atmosphere

3.2 Solar and terrestrial radiation

3.3 Solar radiation, ozone and the stratospheric temperature profile

3.4 Trapping of longwave radiation

3.5 A simple model of radiation transfer

3.6 Light scattering

3.7 Conduction, convection and sensible and latent heat

3.8 The energy budget for the Earth’s atmosphere

3.9 Aerosols, clouds and climate

3.10 Solar radiation and the biosphere

3.11 Summary

References

Further reading

Questions

4 Biogeochemical cycles
Dudley Shallcross and Anwar Khan

4.1 Sources

4.2 Sinks

4.3 Carbon

4.4 Nitrogen

4.5 Sulphur

4.6 Halogens

4.7 Hydrogen

4.8 Summary

References

Further reading

Questions

Answers

5 Tropospheric chemistry and air pollution
Paul Monks and Joshua Vande Hey

5.1 Sources of trace gases in the atmosphere

5.2 Key processes in tropospheric chemistry

5.3 Initiation of photochemistry by light

5.4 Tropospheric oxidation chemistry

5.5 Night time oxidation chemistry

5.6 Halogen chemistry

5.7 Air pollution and urban chemistry

5.8 Summary

References

Further reading

Questions

6 Cloud formation and chemistry
Peter Brimblecombe

6.1 Clouds

6.2 Cloud formation

6.3 Particle size and water content

6.4 Dissolved solids in cloud water and rainfall

6.5 Dissolution of gases

6.6 Reactions and photochemistry

6.7 Radical and photochemical reactions

6.8 Summary

References

Further reading

Questions

7 Particulate matter in the atmosphere
Paul Williams

7.1 Aerosol properties

7.2 Aerosol sources

7.3 The role of atmospheric particles

7.4 Aerosol measurements

7.5 Summary

References

Questions

8 Stratospheric chemistry and ozone depletion
Martyn Chipperfield and Rob Mackenzie

8.1 Ozone column amounts

8.2 The physical structure of the stratosphere

8.3 Gas-phase chemistry of the stratosphere

8.4 Aerosols and clouds in the stratosphere

8.5 Heterogeneous chemistry of the stratosphere

8.6 Future perturbations to the stratosphere

8.7 Summary

References

Questions

9 Boundary layer meteorology and atmospheric dispersion
Janet Barlow and Natalie Theeuwes

9.1 The atmospheric boundary layer

9.2 Flow over vegetation

9.3 The urban boundary layer

9.4 Dispersion of pollutants

9.5 Summary

References

Questions

10 Urban air pollution
Zongbo Shi

10.1 Urban air pollution – a brief history

10.2 Scale of urban air pollution

10.3 Air pollutants and their sources in the urban atmosphere

10.4 From emissions to airborne concentrations

10.5 Urban-scale impacts

10.6 Means of mitigation

10.7 Case studies

10.8 Summary

References

Further reading

Questions

11 Global warming and climate change science
Atul Jane, Xiaoming Xu and Nick Hewitt

11.1 Historical evidence of the impact of human activities on climate

11.2 Future outlook of climate change

11.3 The Integrated Science Assessment Modeling (ISAM)

11.4 Potential impacts of climate change

11.5 Summary

References

Questions

Appendix: Suggested web resources

List of abbreviations, constants and nomenclature

Index