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Society 5.0: Industry of the Future, Technologies, Methods and Tools

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Society 5.0: Industry of the Future, Technologies, Methods and Tools

Bruno Salgues

ISBN: 978-1-119-52763-3 August 2018 Wiley-ISTE 302 Pages

Description

Following the rapid development of connected technologies, which are now highly sophisticated and spread across the globe, Society 5.0 has emerged and brought with it a dramatic societal shift.

 In 1998, Kodak, the world leader in photographic film, had 170,000 employees. It thus seemed unthinkable that just 3 years later, the majority of people would stop taking photographs to paper film and that Kodak would have disappeared. These are the stakes of this new society that is taking shape.

 This book, which does not seek to critique current politics, management or marketing literature, aims to fight against the excesses of this often-misunderstood Society 5.0 and to present the ideas and associated technologies that comprise it, all working towards societal improvement. Among these technologies, artificial intelligence, robotics, digital platforms and 3D printing are undoubtedly the most important, and thus receive the greatest focus.

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Introduction xix

Chapter 1. Society 5.0, Its Logic and Its Construction 1

1.1. The origins of society 5.0 1

1.2. The ancient ages 6

1.3. Cybernics or cyber-physical systems 7

1.4. The Council on Competitiveness-Nippon (COCN) 8

1.5. The lessons of history 8

1.6. The decision variables of society 5.0 9

1.6.1. Which role for information? 9

1.6.2. Which role for time? 11

1.6.3. Which role for nature?  11

1.6.4. Which role for distraction? 12

1.6.5. Which role for identity? 13

1.6.6. Which role for alienation? 16

1.6.7. Which role for action? 17

1.7. The contribution of the first revolution 18

1.8. Humanity 2.0 and society 5.0 18

1.9. The new role of society 5.0: a return to bio? 19

1.10. Growing sectors and lagging sectors 19

1.11. The elements of society 5.0 20

Chapter 2. From Society 5.0 to Its Associated Policies 23

2.1. The place of politics in organizations 23

2.1.1. The three levels: strategic, tactical, operational 23

2.1.2. Politics and ethics 24

2.1.3. The relationship between the strategic, tactical and operational levels, and the organization’s functions and tasks 25

2.2. The implementation of national policies 25

2.3. The notion of walls 27

2.3.1. Different types of walls 27

2.3.2. The “NIMBY” wall 28

2.3.3. The wall between private individuals and professionals 29

2.4. New political attitudes 30

2.4.1. Vetocracy 30

2.4.2. Ultrademocracy 33

2.5. The role of governments 34

2.5.1. The protection of national industry 34

2.5.2. The limitations required by governments 35

2.5.3. The question of public orders 36

2.5.4. New cultural policies 36

Chapter 3. Industry 4.0 at the Core of Society 5.0 37

3.1. Business in society 5.0 38

3.1.1. The recent history of the decline of industry 38

3.1.2. The impact of political choices 39

3.1.3. Pierre Musso’s perspective 40

3.2. The firm: a general theory 41

3.2.1. The management of a firm 41

3.2.2. The definition of a market 43

3.2.3. The concept of productive activity 43

3.2.4. The fundamental structures of the firm 44

3.2.5. The question of the appearance of improved structures 46

3.2.6. The usefulness of the concept of profit center 48

3.2.7. The difference between functions and structures 49

3.2.8. The relationship between environment, strategy and structure  49

3.3. The determinants of the factory of the future 50

3.3.1. The main determinants 50

3.3.2. The place of digital 52

3.3.3. Direct manufacturing 53

3.4. The different types of factories of the future 53

3.4.1. Factory 4.0: “integrated logistics chain” 54

3.4.2. The Key-Technology factory: “a highly differentiating process” 54

3.4.3. The Craft-Industrial factory: “tailor-made industrialized production” 54

3.4.4. The Client Drive factory: “the customer operates the process” 54

3.4.5. The Low Cost factory: “in Open Source” 55

3.5. The regulatory determinants of the factory of the future 56

3.6. The main questions regarding the factory of the future 56

3.6.1. The location of the factory of the future 58

3.6.2. Production cycles 58

3.6.3. Finances in the factory of the future 59

3.6.4. The conditions of its emergence 60

3.7. Changes related to the factory of the future 60

3.7.1. Actions for favoring the advent of the factory of the future 61

3.7.2. The notion of industrial revolution 61

3.8. Daily management 62

3.9. Additive manufacturing technologies 62

3.9.1. CNC tools 62

3.9.2. The notion of CPPS 62

3.10. The example of the textile industry 63

Chapter 4. The City and Mobility 3.0 67

4.1. Research 67

4.1.1. The city in motion 67

4.1.2. Transit-City program 68

4.1.3. Research on smart vehicles 69

4.2. The link between smart vehicles and road infrastructure 70

4.2.1. Smart vehicles’ levels 71

4.2.2. Current examples of autonomous vehicles 73

4.2.3. The challenges of the road environment 73

4.2.4. The smart and mobile habitat 74

Chapter 5. Information Technology 2.0, the Foundation of Society 5.0 75

5.1. The reference to Jean-Paul Sartre 75

5.2. The “Sartrian” man in the digital world 77

5.3. Schemata 79

5.4. Data in their environment 79

5.4.1. The sources of data 79

5.4.2. Regulations on data use 80

5.5. The impact of the digital world 81

5.6. The digital shift of organizations 82

5.6.1. Organizations where the digital shift has been a failure 82

5.6.2. Organizations that made the digital shift early 82

5.6.3. Organizations blocked at ICT 1.0 83

5.7. ICT infrastructure 84

5.8. Primitive technologies 84

5.8.1. Text analysis 84

5.8.2. Voice recognition 85

5.8.3. The mobile phone as an inclusive technology 85

5.9. Recent technologies 86

5.9.1. Robotics and automation 86

5.9.2. Virtual reality 87

5.9.3. Computer-aided design 87

5.9.4. Artificial intelligence 89

Chapter 6. Society 5.0 and the Management of the Future 91

6.1. The firm from the managerial viewpoint 91

6.1.1. The definition of management 91

6.1.2. Management’s contents 92

6.2. The definition of market 92

6.3. Marketing 93

6.3.1. Marketing is an approach which only makes sense in a certain context 93

6.3.2. The four historical periods of marketing.95

6.3.3. The features of the different phases 96

6.4. The logics: need, desire, expectation and demand 99

6.4.1. The Lacanian perspective applied to marketing 99

6.4.2. The place of marketing 100

6.5. New managerial skills 102

6.6. Boredom comes from repetition 103

6.7. Customer satisfaction 103

6.8. Resistance to consumption 104

6.9. Recovery, gleaning, etc 105

6.10. Customer relationship management: an essential tool 105

6.11. The holistic approach to management 106

6.11.1. Sociocracy 106

6.11.2. Holacracy 107

6.12. The hacker’s position 108

6.12.1. Corporate hacking 108

6.12.2. Managing a hacking session 111

6.12.3. Human resources management 112

6.13. Feeble signals for understanding evolution 114

6.14. The generations 115

6.14.1. The Beta generation 115

6.14.2. The more “ecological” consumption of new generations 115

6.14.3. The middle-class generation 116

6.15. Skills and generations 117

6.15.1. The distinctive skills of a firm 117

6.15.2. The history of Low and Less 117

6.15.3. The cashless generation 117

6.15.4. Changes in commercialization and in business 118

6.15.5. Changes in the market 118

Chapter 7. The Consequences of the End of Major Innovations 121

7.1. The end of the major innovations: some observations 121

7.2. Marketing philosophy as a vehicle for enhancing technology 123

7.2.1. Why do we mention a marketing philosophy? 123

7.2.2. The example of Intel processors 124

7.2.3. Innovation balance 124

7.3. The new forms of innovation 125

7.4. The globalization of research 126

7.4.1. The globalization of science does not really exist 126

7.4.2. Scientific globalization is only real for mathematics, physics and health 127

7.4.3. The key point is European research 127

7.5. The globalization of scientific publications 128

7.5.1. Scientific communication: publish or perish 128

7.5.2. The solution, to expand the scope of “publications” 129

7.6. The role of bureaucracy in research 129

7.7. The role of China 130

7.8. The solution: to restore philosophy, poetry and morality to science and innovation 131

7.9. The new research in society 5.0 132

7.10. Innovation related to opportunities 132

7.11. The paradigm of innovation 134

7.12. Design thinking 135

7.12.1. Stage 1: identifying a problem and understanding its environment, “observation phase” 135

7.12.2. Stage 2: finding the concept or idea that will make it possible to find a solution, “ideation” phase.136

7.12.3. Stage 3: designing 136

7.12.4. Stage 4: building a model and a prototype 136

7.12.5. Stage 5: the assessment phase or “evaluation” 137

7.13. The risks of innovation 138

7.14. The lessons of Thomas Edison 139

7.15. Methods for innovating 140

7.15.1. The preliminary questions related to the genesis of a product or a service 141

7.15.2. The choice on whether to innovate a product-service or to innovate a process 142

7.16. Man in innovation 142

7.16.1. The human resources of the innovative firm 142

7.16.2. The answer to the society of boredom 142

7.17. The different forms of boredom 143

7.18. The transgression phenomenon and the transcendence one 144

7.19. Boredom comes from the ugly 145

7.19.1. The risk of uniformity 145

7.19.2. The search for harmony 146

7.20. The search for equilibrium 147

7.21. Design as a technical answer 147

7.21.1. Industrial aesthetics and design laws 147

7.21.2. The evolution of design needs 149

7.21.3. The use of a former theoretical approach in design 150

7.21.4. The aesthetic components 152

7.21.5. The impact of the sociometrics and homology 154

7.22. The sources and forms of design 155

7.23. The other criteria for innovating a product or a service 156

Chapter 8. Innovation in Society 5.0 157

8.1. The innovative product service 157

8.1.1. Losses during the innovation process 158

8.1.2. The question on the validation of a new product or a service 159

8.1.3. Improving a product 160

8.2. The paradigm shift 160

8.3. Mash-up forms 162

8.4. “Co” society 163

8.5. The sharing of information 163

8.6. Social networks, Internet and innovation 164

8.7. The collaborative forms 164

8.8. Innovation ecosystems 165

8.8.1. Resource centers 165

8.8.2. The concept of the Digital Innovation Hub 166

8.9. The evolution of former innovation organizations 168

8.10. Innovation in human resources 168

Chapter 9. “Co” Society 171

9.1. “Co” society 171

9.2. The evolution from prosthetic man to the current man 171

9.2.1. Types of bored men 172

9.2.2. Prosthetic man 172

9.2.3. Civilized man 173

9.2.4. Rational man. 173

9.2.5. Information society man 174

9.2.6. Augmented or improved man 174

9.3. The split between boredom and innovation 174

9.4. New innovative strategies 175

9.4.1. Innovation must be everywhere 175

9.4.2. The end of the dynamics of jealous marketing 175

9.4.3. “Co” society as a means for understanding the consumer 176

9.5. Porter’s strategic model 176

9.5.1. The notion of strategy and of strategic model 176

9.5.2. The concept of value chain 177

9.5.3. Porter’s three basic strategies 178

9.5.4. Cost strategic advantage 179

9.5.5. Differentiation advantage 179

9.5.6. Focus strategy 180

9.5.7. Development pathways 181

9.5.8. The origins of market massification 181

9.5.9. The vision through differentiation 182

9.6. Useful partnerships 183

9.7. Different types of alliances 184

9.7.1. The conditions of alliances 184

9.7.2. Strategic alliance through fusion 185

9.7.3. Strategic alliances involved via the execution of an agreement 185

9.7.4. Alliances through the integration of products.186

9.7.5. Determinants of an alliance 187

9.8. Typology of firms (according to Kotler) 188

9.8.1. The leader’s strategy 188

9.8.2. The challenger’s strategy 189

9.8.3. The follower’s strategy 189

9.8.4. The specialist’s strategy 190

Chapter 10. The Challenges of Localization, the Market, Skills and Knowledge 191

10.1. Localization is increasingly losing its interest 191

10.2. New practices related to the lack of importance of localization 192

10.3. The importance of reconstruction 193

10.4. Changes in market shares: why and how? 193

10.5. The issue of skills and knowledge 194

10.6. The notion of intellectual capital 194

10.7. Changes in operational marketing 196

10.8. Intrusive marketing 197

10.9. The use of acquired knowledge 198

10.10. Identification of regulations in documents 199

10.11. Identification of forms of commitment 200

10.12. Implementation of normalization 200

10.13. Organizational consequences 201

10.13.1. The norm as an agent for contextual change 201

10.13.2. The norm and machines 202

10.14. The impact of change on data 203

10.15. Changes in programs and processes 203

10.16. Organizational evolution 204

10.17. The challenge of generating trust 206

10.17.1. Specialized marketplaces 206

10.17.2. Rating, the representation of trust 206

10.17.3. Commitment as an ingredient of trust 207

10.17.4. The necessary confidence for inviting financing 207

Chapter 11. On-Demand Society 209

11.1. Does boredom have any influence on need, desire, expectation and demand? 209

11.1.1. Collective neurosis and diverted uses 209

11.1.2. The theory of diverted uses and the role of boredom 210

11.1.3. Examples of diverted uses 211

11.2. “Servitization”, the products and services of revolution 5.0 212

11.3. The notion of “servitization” 213

11.4. The nature of “servitization” 213

11.4.1. Servicizing 214

11.4.2. The different forms of servicizing 214

11.4.3. “Servuction” 215

11.4.4. Competitive advantage 215

11.5. The paths toward “servitization” 216

11.5.1. The formation of value 217

11.5.2. “XaaS” logic 218

11.5.3. The “rental” rather than the “purchase” logic 219

11.6. Enterprise manufacturing services 220

11.6.1. The fabless 220

11.6.2. Original design manufacturers 221

11.6.3. The example of the EMS of electronics 221

11.7. The key points of “servitization”: visualization and virtualization 222

11.8. Recent developments 223

11.8.1. Tokyo University of Technology 224

11.8.2. The SPREE project 224

11.8.3. The example of the firm Komatsu 224

Chapter 12. The Economy of Society 5.0 227

12.1. The new economies 228

12.2. The problems in the age of connectivity 230

12.3. Evolution of economy 230

12.3.1. Hunting and gathering economy 231

12.3.2. Bartering economy 231

12.3.3. Souk economy or the basis of market economy. 232

12.3.4. Production economy 232

12.3.5. Mass distribution economy 233

12.3.6. Market economy 234

12.3.7. Environmental economy 234

12.3.8. Intangible economy 234

12.4. Economy related to digital tools 235

12.5. The power of platforms 237

12.5.1. The concept of platform 237

12.5.2. The role of trust in platforms 237

12.5.3. The different types of platforms 238

12.5.4. The State as platform 239

12.5.5. Platform as a service 242

12.5.6. Marketing platforms 243

12.6. The limits of platforms 243

12.7. Free economy 244

12.7.1. The characteristics of free economy 245

12.7.2. The example of the “free” newspaper market 245

12.8. The fight against large firms 245

12.9. The notion of data visualization 246

12.10. Technology creating new resources 247

Conclusion 249

Bibliography 251

Index 269