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Hydraulic Fracturing and Well Stimulation

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Hydraulic Fracturing and Well Stimulation

Fred Aminzadeh

ISBN: 978-1-119-55569-8 December 2019 330 Pages

Hardcover
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Description

Hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) has been a source of both achievement and controversy for years, and it continues to be a hot-button issue all over the world.  It has made the United States an energy exporting country once again and kept the price of gasoline low, for consumers and companies.  On the other hand, it has been potentially a dangerous and destructive practice that has led to environmental problems and health issues.  It is a deeply important subject for the petroleum engineer to explore as much as possible.

This collection of papers is the first in the series, Sustainable Energy Engineering, tackling this very complex process of hydraulic fracturing and its environmental and economic ramifications.  Born out of the journal by the same name, formerly published by Scrivener Publishing, most of the articles in this volume have been updated, and there are some new additions, as well, to keep the engineer abreast of any updates and new methods in the industry.

Truly a snapshot of the state-of-the-art, this groundbreaking volume is a must-have for any petroleum engineer working in the field, environmental engineers, petroleum engineering students, and any other engineer or scientist working with hydraulic fracturing.

Foreword xiii

Part 1: Introduction 1

1 Hydraulic Fracturing, An Overview 3
Fred Aminzadeh

1.1 What is Hydraulic Fracturing? 4

1.2 Why Hydraulic Fracturing is Important 5

1.3 Fracture Characterization 8

1.4 Geomechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing 11

1.5 Environmental Aspects of Hydraulic Fracturing 14

1.6 Induced Seismicity 18

1.7 Case Study: Fracturing Induced Seismicity in California 23

1.8 Assessment of Global Oil and Gas Resources Amenable for Extraction via Hydraulic Fracturing 27

1.9 Economics of HF 27

1.10 Conclusions 28

Acknowledgement 30

References 30

Part 2: General Concepts 35

2 Evolution of Stress Transfer Mechanisms During Mechanical Interaction Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures 37
Birendra Jha

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Physical Model 39

2.3 Mathematical Formulation 40

2.4 Numerical Model 43

2.5 Simulation Results 44

2.6 Effect of Hydraulic Fracturing on Natural Fractures 46

2.7 Conclusion 49

References 50

3 Primer on Hydraulic Fracturing Concerning Initiatives on Energy Sustainability 53
Michael Holloway and Oliver Rudd

3.1 Hydraulic Fracturing 54

3.1.1 Environmental Impact – Reality vs. Myth 54

3.1.2 The Tower of Babel and How it Could be the Cause of Much of the Fracking Debate 55

3.1.3 Frac Fluids and Composition 57

3.1.4 Uses and Needs for Frac Fluids 57

3.1.5 Common Fracturing Additives 58

3.1.6 Typical Percentages of Commonly Used Additives 60

3.1.6.1 Proppants 61

3.1.6.2 Silica Sand 63

3.1.6.3 Resin Coated Proppant 65

3.1.6.4 Manufactured Ceramics Proppants 65

3.2 Additional Types 66

3.3 Other Most Common Objections to Drilling Operations 66

3.3.1 Noise 67

3.4 Changes in Landscape and Beauty of Surroundings 68

3.5 Increased Traffic 69

3.6 Chemicals and Products on Locations 70

3.6.1 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 72

3.6.1.1 Contents of an MSDS 73

3.6.1.2 Product Identification 73

3.6.1.3 Hazardous Ingredients of Mixtures 74

3.6.1.4 Physical Data 74

3.6.1.5 Fire & Explosion Hazard Data 75

3.6.1.6 Health Hazard Data 76

3.6.1.7 Reactivity Data 76

3.6.1.8 Personal Protection Information 77

3.7 Conclusion 77

Bibliography 78

4 A Graph Theoretic Approach for Spatial Analysis of Induced Fracture Networks 79
Deborah Glosser and Jennifer R. Bauer

4.1 Background and Rationale 80

4.2 Graph-Based Spatial Analysis 83

4.2.1 Acquire Geologic Data and Define Regional Bounding Lithology 84

4.2.2 Details of the Topological Algorithm 85

4.2.2.1 Data Acquisition, Conditioning and Quanta 85

4.2.2.2 Details of the k-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm 86

4.2.3 The Value of the Topological Approach Algorithm 86

4.3 Real World Applications of the Algorithm 87

4.3.1 Bradford Field: Contrasting the Graph-Based Approaches; k Sensitivity 87

4.3.1.1 Data Sources 88

4.3.1.2 Results 88

4.3.2 Armstrong PA: Testing the Algorithms Against a Known Leakage Scenario 88

4.3.2.1 Data Sources 90

4.3.2.2 Results 90

4.4 Discussion 91

4.4.1 Uses for Industry and Regulators 93

4.5 Conclusions 93

Acknowledgements 94

References 94

Part 3: Optimum Design Parameters 99

5 Fracture Spacing Design for Multistage Hydraulic Fracturing Completions for Improved Productivity 101
D. Maity, J. Ciezobka and I. Salehi

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Method 103

5.2.1 Impact of Natural Fractures 104

5.2.2 Workflow 107

5.2.3 Model Fine-Tuning 108

5.2.4 Need for Artificial Intelligence 109

5.3 Data 110

5.4 Results 114

5.4.1 Applicability Considerations 120

5.5 Concluding Remarks 121

Acknowledgement 122

References 122

6 Clustering-Based Optimal Perforation Design Using Well Logs 125
Andrei S. Popa, Steve Cassidy and Sinisha Jikich

6.1 Introduction 126

6.2 Objective and Motivation 127

6.3 Technology 128

6.4 Clustering Analysis 129

6.4.1 C-Means (FCM) Algorithm 130

6.5 Methodology and Analysis 131

6.5.1 Available Data 131

6.6 Applying the FCM Algorithm 134

6.7 Results and Discussion 136

6.8 Conclusions 139

Acknowledgements 139

References 139

7 Horizontal Well Spacing and Hydraulic Fracturing Design Optimization: A Case Study on Utica-Point Pleasant Shale Play 141
Alireza Shahkarami and Guochang Wang

7.1 Introduction 142

7.2 Methodology 143

7.2.1 The Base Reservoir Simulation Model 143

7.3 Optimization Scenarios 147

7.4 Results and Discussion 148

7.4.1 Base Reservoir Model – A Single Well Case 148

7.4.2 Multi-Lateral Depletion – Finding the Optimum Number of Wells 148

7.4.3 Completion Parameters 151

7.4.4 Second Economic Scenario, Reducing the Cost of Completion 153

7.5 Conclusion 154

Acknowledgments 156

Part 4: Fracture Reservoir Characterization 159
Ahmed Ouenes

Introduction 159

References 161

8 Geomechanical Modeling of Fault Systems Using the Material Point Method – Application to the Estimation of Induced Seismicity Potential to Bolster Hydraulic Fracturing Social License 163
Nicholas M. Umholtz and Ahmed Ouenes

8.1 Introduction 164

8.2 The Social License to Operate (SLO) 165

8.3 Regional Faults in Oklahoma, USA and Alberta, Canada used as Input in Geomechanical Modeling 166

8.4 Modeling Earthquake Potential using Numerical Material Models 168

8.5 A New Workflow for Estimating Induced Seismicity

Potential and its Application to Oklahoma and Alberta 173

8.6 The Benefits of a Large Scale Predictive Model and Future Research 178

8.7 Conflict of Interest 179

Acknowledgements 179

References 179

9 Correlating Pressure with Microseismic to Understand Fluid-Reservoir Interactions During Hydraulic Fracturing 181
Debotyam Maity

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Method 182

9.2.1 Pressure Data Analysis 182

9.2.2 Microseismic Data Analysis 186

9.3 Data 187

9.4 Results 188

9.4.1 Pitfalls in Analysis 196

9.5 Conclusions 196

9.6 Acknowledgements 197

References 197

10 Multigrid Fracture Stimulated Reservoir Volume Mapping Coupled with a Novel Mathematical Optimization Approach to Shale Reservoir Well and Fracture Design 199
Ahmed Alzahabi, Noah Berlow, M.Y. Soliman and Ghazi AlQahtani

10.1 Introduction 200

10.2 Problem Definition and Modeling 203

10.2.1 Geometric Interpretation 203

10.2.1.1 Fracture Geometry 203

10.2.2 The Developed Model Flow Chart 204

10.2.3 Well and Fracture Design Vector Components 204

10.3 Development of a New Mathematical Model 204

10.3.1 Methodology 207

10.3.2 Objective Function 207

10.3.3 Assumptions and Constraints Considered in the Mathematical Model 207

10.3.3.1 Sets 208

10.3.3.2 Variables 208

10.3.3.3 Decision Variables 208

10.3.3.4 Extended Sets 208

10.3.3.5 Constant Parameters 209

10.3.3.6 Constraints 209

10.3.4 Stimulated Reservoir Volume Representation 210

10.3.5 Optimization Procedure 211

10.4 Model Building 212

10.4.1 Simulation Model of Well Pad and SRV’s Evaluation 214

10.5 Results and Discussions 216

10.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 216

References 218

Appendix A: Abbreviations 220

Appendix B: Definition of the Fracturability Index Used in the Well Placement Process 220

Appendix C: Geometric Interpretation of Parameters Used in Building the Model 221

11 A Semi-Analytical Model for Predicting Productivity of Refractured Oil Wells with Uniformly Distributed Radial Fractures 227
Xiao Cai, Boyun Guo and Gao Li

11.1 Introduction 228

11.2 Mathematical Model 229

11.3 Model Verification 231

11.4 Sensitivity Analysis 231

11.5 Conclusions 233

Acknowledgements 234

References 234

Appendix A: Derivation of Inflow Equation for Wells with Radial Fractures under Pseudo-Steady State Flow Conditions 235

Part 5: Environmental Issues of Hydraulic Fracturing  243

Introduction 243

References 245

12 The Role of Human Factors Considerations and Safety Culture in the Safety of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) 247
Jamie Heinecke, Nima Jabbari and Najmedin Meshkati

12.1 Introduction 248

12.2 Benefits of Hydraulic Fracturing 250

12.3 Common Criticisms 250

12.4 Different Steps of Hydraulic Fracturing and Proposed Human Factors Considerations 252

12.5 Hydraulic Fracturing Process: Drilling 254

12.6 Hydraulic Fracturing Process: Fluid Injection 257

12.7 Fracking Fluid 258

12.8 Wastewater 258

12.9 Human Factors and Safety Culture Considerations 259

12.9.1 Human Factors 259

12.9.1.1 Microergonomics 260

12.9.1.2 Macroergonomics 260

12.9.2 Safety Culture 261

12.10 Examples of Recent Incidents 263

12.11 Conclusion and Recommendations 265

Acknowledgment 266

References 266

13 Flowback of Fracturing Fluids with Upgraded Visualization of Hydraulic Fractures and Its Implications on Overall Well Performance 271
Khush Desai and Fred Aminzadeh

13.1 Introduction 272

13.2 Assumptions 272

13.3 Upgraded Visualization of Hydraulic Fracturing 273

13.3.1 Concept 273

13.3.2 Results 274

13.4 Reasons for Partial Flowback 275

13.4.1 Fracture Modelling 275

13.4.2 Depth of Penetration 276

13.4.3 Closing of Fractures 277

13.4.4 Chemical Interaction of Fracturing Fluids 277

13.5 Impact of Parameters under Control 278

13.6 Loss in Incremental Oil Production 279

13.7 Conclusions 280

13.8 Limitations 281

References 281

Appendix A 282

14 Assessing the Groundwater Contamination Potential from a Well in a Hydraulic Fracturing Operation 285
Nima Jabbari, Fred Aminzadeh and Felipe P. J. de Barros

14.1 Introduction 286

14.2 Risk Pathways to the Shallow Groundwater 288

14.3 Problem Statement 289

14.4 Mathematical Formulation 290

14.5 Hypothetical Case Description and the Numerical Method 291

14.6 Results and Discussion 294

14.7 Conclusion 297

References 298

Index 303