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Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE): Growth, Materials Properties and Applications




Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE): Growth, Materials Properties and Applications

Stuart Irvine, Peter Capper, Safa Kasap, Arthur Willoughby

ISBN: 978-1-119-31301-4 November 2019 424 Pages


Systematically discusses the growth method, material properties, and applications for key semiconductor materials

MOVPE is a chemical vapor deposition technique that produces single or polycrystalline thin films. As one of the key epitaxial growth technologies, it produces layers that form the basis of many optoelectronic components including mobile phone components (GaAs), semiconductor lasers and LEDs (III-Vs, nitrides), optical communications (oxides), infrared detectors, photovoltaics (II-IV materials), etc. Featuring contributions by an international group of academics and industrialists, this book looks at the fundamentals of MOVPE and the key areas of equipment/safety, precursor chemicals, and growth monitoring. It covers the most important materials from III-V and II-VI compounds to quantum dots and nanowires, including sulfides and selenides and oxides/ceramics.

Sections in every chapter of Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE): Growth, Materials Properties and Applications cover the growth of the particular materials system, the properties of the resultant material, and its applications. The book offers information on arsenides, phosphides, and antimonides; nitrides; lattice-mismatched growth; CdTe, MCT (mercury cadmium telluride); ZnO and related materials; equipment and safety; and more. It also offers a chapter that looks at the future of the technique.

  • Covers, in order, the growth method, material properties, and applications for each material
  • Includes chapters on the fundamentals of MOVPE and the key areas of equipment/safety, precursor chemicals, and growth monitoring
  • Looks at important materials such as III-V and II-VI compounds, quantum dots, and nanowires
  • Provides topical and wide-ranging coverage from well-known authors in the field
  • Part of the Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications series 

Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE): Growth, Materials Properties and Applications is an excellent book for graduate students, researchers in academia and industry, as well as specialist courses at undergraduate/postgraduate level in the area of epitaxial growth (MOVPE/ MOCVD/ MBE).

List of Contributors




1 Introduction to Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy
S.J.C. Irvine and P. Capper

1.1. Historical background to MOVPE

1.2. Basic reaction mechanisms

1.3. Precursors

1.4. Types of reactor cell

1.5. Introduction to applications of MOVPE

1.5.1 AlN for UV emitters

1.5.2 AlN for UV emitters

1.5.3 Multijunction solar cells

1.5.4 GaAs and InP transistors for high-frequency devices

1.5.5 Infrared detectors

1.5.6 Photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic devices

1.6 Health and Safety considerations in MOVPE

1.7 Conclusions


2 Fundamentals of MOVPE growth
G.B. Stringfellow

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Thermodynamics

2.2.1 Thermodynamics of MOVPE growth

2.2.2 Solid composition

2.2.3 Phase Separation

2.2.4 Ordering

2.3 Kinetics

2.3.1 Mass transport

2.3.2 Precursor Pyrolysis

2.3.3 Control of solid composition

2.4 Surface processes

2.4.1 Surface reconstruction

2.4.2 Atomic-level surface processes

2.4.3 Effects of Surface Processes on Materials Properties

2.4.4 Surfactants

2.5 Specific Systems

2.5.1 AlGaInP

2.5.2 Group III nitrides

2.5.3 Novel Alloys

2.6. Summary


3 Growth, Materials Properties and Applications of III-Vs: Phosphides, Arsenides and Antimonides
H. Hardtdegen

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Precursors for column III phosphides, arsenides and antimonides

3.3 GaAs-based materials

3.2.1 GaAs-based materials

3.2.2 GaInP, AlGaInP/GaAs Properties and Deposition

3.4 InP-based materials

3.4.1 InP properties and deposition

3.4.2 AlInAs/GaInAs/AlGaInAs properties and deposition

3.4.3 AlInAs/GaInAs/InP heterostructures

3.4.4 InxGa1–xAsyP1–y properties and deposition Electronic

3.5 Column III antimonides, properties and deposition

3.5.1 Deposition of InSb, GaSb and AlSb

3.5.2 Deposition of ternary column III alloys (AlGa)Sb and (GaIn)Sb

3.5.3 Deposition of ternary column V alloys InAsSb, GaAsSb

3.5.4 Deposition of quaternary column V alloys

3.6 Applications

3.6.1 Epitaxy of electronic device structures

3.6.2 Epitaxy of optoelectronic device structures

3.7 In situ optical characterization/growth control

3.8 Conclusions


4 Nitride Semiconductors
A. Dadgar and M. Weyers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Properties of III-Nitrides

4.3 Challenges in growth of III-nitrides

4.3.1 Lattice and thermal mismatch

4.3.2 Ternary alloys: miscibility and compositional homogeneity

4.3.3 Gas-phase prereactions

4.3.4 Doping of III-Nitrides

4.4 Substrates

4.4.1 Heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates

4.4.2 GaN growth on sapphire

4.4.3 III-N growth on SiC

4.4.4 GaN growth on silicon

4.5 MOVPE Growth technology

4.5.1 Precursors

4.5.2 Reactors and in situ monitoring

4.6 Economic Importance

4.6.1 Optoelectronic devices

4.6.2 Electronic devices

4.7 Conclusion


5 Metamorphic growth and multi-junction III-V solar cells
N. Karam C. M. Fetzer, Xing-Quan Liu, M. A. Steiner, and K. L. Schulte

5.1 Introduction to MOVPE for Multijunction Solar Cells

5.1.1 III-V PV Solar Cell Opportunities and applications

5.1.2 Metamorphic Multijunction Solar Cells

5.1.3 Reactor Technology for Metamorphic Epitaxy

5.2 Upright Metamorphic Multijunction (UMM) Solar Cells

5.2.1 Introduction and History of Upright Metamorphic Multijunctions

5.2.2 MOVPE Growth Considerations of UMM

5.2.3 Growth and Device Results

5.2.4 Challenges and Future Outlook

5.3 Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar cells

5.3.1 Introduction and History of Inverted Metamorphic Multijunctions

5.3.2 MOVPE Growth Considerations of IMM

5.3.3 Growth and Device Results

5.3.4 Growth and Device Results

5.5 Conclusions


6 Quantum dots
E. Hulicius, A. Hospodková, and M. Zíková

6.1 General introduction to the topic

6.1.1 Definition and History

6.1.2 Paradigm of Quantum Dots

6.1.3 QD types

6.2 AIIIBV materials and structures

6.2.1 QDs embedded in the structure

6.2.2 Semiconductor materials for embedded QDs

6.3 Growth procedures

6.3.1 Comparison of MBE and MOVPE grown QDs

6.3.2 Growth parameters

6.3.3 QD surrounding layers

6.4 In situ measurements

6.4.1 Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy of QD growth

6.4.2 Other supporting in situ measurements

6.5 Structure Characterization

6.5.1 Optical: Photo-, magnetophoto-, electroluminescence, spin detection

6.5.2 Microscopies – AFM, TEM, XSTM, BEEM/BEES

6.5.3 Electrical: photocurrent, capacitance measurements

6.6 Applications

6.6.1 QD lasers, optical amplifiers and LEDs

6.6.2 QD Detectors, FETs, Photovoltaics, and Memories

6.7 Summary

6.8 Future Perspectives



7 III–V nanowires and related nanostructures: from nitrides to antimonides
H. J. Joyce

7.1 Introduction to nanowires and related nanostructures

7.2 Geometric and crystallographic properties of III–V nanowires

7.2.1 Crystal phase

7.2.2 Growth direction, morphology and side-facets

7.3 Particle-assisted MOVPE of nanowires

7.3.1 The phase of the particle

7.3.2 The role of the particle

7.3.3 Axial and radial growth modes

7.3.4 Self-assisted growth

7.4 Selective-area MOVPE of nanowires and nanostructures

7.4.1 The role of the mask

7.4.2 Axial and radial growth modes

7.5 Alternative techniques for MOVPE of nanowires

7.6 Novel applications of nanowires

7.7 Concluding remarks


8 Monolithic III/V integration on (001) Si substrate
B. Kunert and K. Volz

8.1 Introduction

8.2 III/V-Si interface

8.2.1 Si surfaces

8.2.2 Interface formation in the presence of impurities and MO precursors

8.2.3 Atomic III/V on Si interface structure

8.2.4 Antiphase domains

8.2.5 III/V growth on Si(001)

8.3 Heteroepitaxy of bulk layers on Si

8.3.1 Lattice matched growth on Si

8.3.2 Metamorphic growth on Si

8.3.3 Selective-area growth (SAG) on Si

8.4 Conclusion


9 MOVPE Growth of Cadmium Mercury Telluride and Applications
C. Maxey, P. Capper, and I. Baker

9.1 Requirement for epitaxy

9.2 History

9.3 Substrate choices

9.3.1 Orientation

9.3.2 Substrate Material

9.4 Reactor Design

9.4.1 Process Abatement Systems

9.5 Process Parameters

9.6 Metalorganic Sources

9.7 Uniformity

9.8 Reproducibility

9.9 Doping

9.10 Defects

9.11 Annealing

9.12 In situ monitoring

9.13 Background to Applications of MOVPE MCT

9.13.1 Introduction to Infrared Imaging and the Atmospheric Windows

9.13.2 MCT Infrared Detector Market in the Modern Era

9.14 Manufacturing Technology for MOVPE Photodiode Arrays

9.14.1 Mesa Heterojunction Devices (MHJ)

9.14.2 Wafer-Scale Processing

9.15 Advanced MCT Technologies

9.15.1 Small-Pixel Technology

9.15.2 Higher Operating Temperature (HOT) Device Structures

9.15.3 Two-Color Array Technology

9.15.4 Nonequilibrium Device Structures

9.16 MOVPE MCT for Scientific Applications

9.16.1 Linear-mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays (LmAPDs) in MOVPE

9.17 Conclusions and Future Trends for MOVPE MCT arrays

Defining Terms


10 Cadmium Telluride and Related II-VI Materials
G. K. and S. J. C. Irvine

10.1 Introduction and historical background

10.2 CdTe homoepitaxy

10.3 CdTe heteroepitaxy

10.3.1 InSb

10.3.2 Sapphire

10.3.3 GaAs

10.3.4 Si

10.4 Low-temperature growth and alternative precursors

10.5 Photoassisted MOVPE

10.6 Plasma-assisted MOVPE

10.7 Polycrystalline MOCVD

10.8 Mechanisms for laser reflectance (LR) monitoring

10.9 MOCVD of CdTe for planar solar cells

10.9.1 CdS and CdZnS window layers

10.9.2 CdTe absorber layer

10.9.3 CdCl2 treatment layer

10.9.4 Photovoltaic planar devices

10.10 Core–shell nanowire photovoltaic devices

10.11 Inline MOCVD for scaling of CdTe

10.12 MOCVD of CdTe for radiation detectors


11 Zinc Oxide and related materials
V. Munoz-Sanjose and S. J. C. Irvine

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Sources for the MOCVD Growth of ZnO and related materials

11.2.1. Metalorganic zinc precursors

11.2.2 Metalorganic cadmium precursors

11.2.3. Metalorganic magnesium precursors

11.2.4. Precursors for oxygen

11.2.5. Precursors for doping

11.3. Substrates for the MOCVD growth of ZnO and related materials

11.3.1. ZnO single crystals and ZnO templates as substrates

11.3.2 Sapphire, Al2O3

11.3.3 Silicon

11.3.4 Glass substrates

11.4. Some techniques for the MOCVD growth of ZnO and related materials

11.4.1 Atmospheric and low-pressure conditions in conventional MOCVD systems

11.4.2 MOCVD-assisted processes

11.5. Crystal growth of ZnO and related materials

11.5.1 Crystal growth by MOCVD of ZnO layers

11.5.2. Crystal growth of ZnO nanostructures

11.5.3 Crystal growth of ZnO-related materials

11.5.4. Doping of ZnO and related materials

11.6 Conclusions



12 Epitaxial systems for III-V and III-Nitride MOVPE
W. Lundinand R. Talalaev

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Typical engineering solutions inside MOVPE tools

12.2.1. Gas blending system

12.2.2. Exhaust system

12.2.3. Reactors

12.3. Reactors for MOVPE of III-V materials

12.3.1. General features of III-V MOVPE

12.3.2. From simple Horizontal Flow to Planetary Reactors

12.3.3. Close-coupled showerhead (CCS) reactors

12.3.4 Rotating disk reactors

12.4. Reactors for MOVPE of III-N materials

12.4.1. Principal differences between MOVPE of classical III-Vs and III-Ns

12.4.2. Rotating-disk reactors

12.4.3. Planetary reactors

12.4.4. CCS reactors

12.4.5. Horizontal flow reactors for III-N MOVPE

12.5. Twenty-five years of commercially available III-N MOVPE reactors evolution


13 Ultrapure Metal-Organic Precursors for MOVPE
D. V. Shenai-Khatkhate

13.1 Introduction

13.1.1 MOVPE Precursor Classes and the Impurities

13.2 Stringent Requirements for Suitable MOVPE Precursors

13.3 Purification Strategies for MOVPE Precursors

13.3.1 Synthetic Strategies for Ultrapure MOVPE Precursors

13.3.2 Purification Strategies for MOVPE Precursors

13.4 MOVPE Precursors for III-V Compound Semiconductors

13.4.1 Group III MOVPE Precursors

13.4.2 Group V MOVPE Precursors

13.5 MOVPE Precursors for II-VI Compound Semiconductors

13.5.1 Group II MOVPE Precursors

13.5.2 Group VI MOVPE Precursors

13.6 Metalorganic Dopants for Compound Semiconductors

13.7 Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Aspects of MOVPE Precursors

13.7.1 General Aspects and Considerations

13.7.2 Employee and Environment Exposure Aspects

13.7.3 Employee and Workplace Exposure Limits

13.8 Conclusions and Future Trends



14 Future Aspects of MOCVD Technology for Epitaxial Growth of Semiconductors
T. Detchprohm, J.-H. Ryou, X. Li, and R. D. Dupuis

14.1 Introduction—Looking Back

14.2 Future equipment Development

14.2.1 Production MOCVD

14.2.2 R&D MOCVD

14.2.3 MOCVD for Ultrawide Bandgap III-Nitrides

14.2.4 MOCVD for Emerging Materials

14.2.5 Democratization of MOCVD

14.3 Future applications for research in semiconductor materials

14.3.1 Heteroepitaxy

14.3.2 Nanostructural Materials

14.3.3 Poly, amorphous and other materials

14.4 Future commercial applications

14.4.1 LEDs

14.4.2 Lasers

14.4.3 OEICs

14.4.4 High-speed electronics

14.4.5 High-power electronics

14.4.6 Solar cells

14.4.7 Detectors

14.5 Summary and conclusions