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Textile Fiber Microscopy: A Practical Approach

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$88.99

Textile Fiber Microscopy: A Practical Approach

Ivana Markova

ISBN: 978-1-119-32007-4 February 2019 240 Pages

Description

A groundbreaking text to the study of textile fibers that bridges the knowledge gap between fiber shape and end uses

Textile Fiber Microscopy offers an important and comprehensive guide to the study of textile fibers and contains a unique text that prioritizes a review of fibers’ microstructure, macrostructure and chemical composition. The author – a noted expert in the field – details many fiber types and includes all the possible fiber shapes with a number of illustrative micrographs. The author explores a wealth of topics such as fiber end uses, fiber source and production, a history of each fiber and the sustainability of the various fibers.

The text includes a review of environmentally friendly fibers and contains information on the most current fiber science by putting the focus on fibers that have been mechanically or chemically recycled, for use in textile production. The author also offers an exploration of issues of textile waste and the lack of textile recycling that can help public policymakers with ways to inform and regulate post-industrial and post-consumer textile waste issues. This vital guide: 

  • Contains an accompanied micrograph for many fibers presented
  • Includes information on how fiber microstructure is connected to fabric properties and how it affects the end use of fabrics
  • Offers a review of the sophistication of textile fibers from a scientific point of view
  • Presents a comparative textile fiber review that is appropriate for both for students, textile experts and forensic scientists

Written for students and professionals of apparel design and merchandising, and forensic scientists, Textile Fiber Microscopy presents an important review of textile fibers from a unique perspective that explores fibers’ microstructure, macrostructure and chemical composition.

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

1 Natural Cellulosic Fibers 1

1.1 Seed Fibers 1

1.1.1 Cotton 1

1.1.2 Organic Cotton 4

1.1.3 Kapok Fibers 6

1.1.4 Poplar Fibers 8

1.1.5 Willow Fibers 9

1.1.6 Coir Fibers 11

1.2 Bast Fibers 12

1.2.1 Linen 12

1.2.2 Ramie 16

1.2.3 Hemp 17

1.2.4 Bamboo 21

1.2.5 Jute 22

1.2.6 Fiber Size 22

1.2.7 Nettle 22

1.2.8 Bast Fiber in Its Historical Context 26

1.3 Leaf Fibers 26

1.3.1 Sisal 27

1.3.2 Henequen 27

1.3.3 Abaca 27

1.3.4 Pineapple Leaves 28

References 28

2 Animal Fibers 31

2.1 Wool 31

2.1.1 Cuticle 32

2.1.2 Scale Pattern Type (Animal Hair) 33

2.1.2.1 Mosaic 34

2.1.2.2 Wave 34

2.1.2.3 Chevron 34

2.1.2.4 Petal 36

2.1.3 Types of Scale Margins 36

2.1.4 Cortex 36

2.1.5 Medulla 36

2.1.5.1 Lattice 37

2.1.5.2 Simple Unbroken 37

2.1.5.3 Interrupted 38

2.1.5.4 Fragmental 38

2.1.5.5 Ladder Type of Medulla 38

2.1.6 Fiber Size 39

2.1.7 Fiber Morphology 39

2.1.7.1 Fiber Absorbency 41

2.1.7.2 Fiber Shrinkage 41

2.1.7.3 Wool Varieties 42

2.1.8 Merino Wool and Other Fine Wool Fibers 43

2.1.8.1 Normal Fleece Wool 44

2.1.8.2 Kemp Fibers 44

2.2 Luxury Fibers 45

2.2.1 Cashmere 46

2.2.2 Yangir 49

2.2.3 Mohair 49

2.2.4 Vicuna 54

2.2.5 Camelid Fibers 55

2.2.6 Alpaca 57

2.2.7 Llama 61

2.2.8 Shahtoosh 62

2.2.9 Yak 62

2.2.10 Other Identification Techniques to Note 63

2.3 Silk 66

2.3.1 Peace or Ahimsa Silk 69

2.3.2 Spider Silk 71

References 73

3 Fur Fibers 77

3.1 Animal Fibers 77

3.1.1 Scale Cast 78

3.1.2 Cuticle Scales 79

3.1.3 Rabbit, Hare, and Angora Rabbit Fibers 79

3.1.4 Angora Hair 81

3.2 Other Fur Fibers 84

3.2.1 Mink and Ermine 86

3.2.2 Kolinsky Mink 88

3.2.3 Raccoon Dog 88

3.2.4 Red Fox 89

3.3 Faux Fur 89

3.4 Dog and Cat Fur 94

3.4.1 Karakul 96

3.4.2 Optical Microscopy 97

3.4.3 Measuring Hair Length 98

References 98

4 Regenerated Cellulosic and Protein Fibers 101

4.1 Regenerated Cellulosic Fibers 101

4.1.1 Viscose Rayon 101

4.1.2 Bamboo Rayon 103

4.1.3 High Wet Modulus (HWM) Rayon 104

4.1.4 Cuprammonium Rayon 106

4.1.5 Lyocell Fibers 107

4.1.6 A Review of Cross‐sectional Shapes of Fibers 108

4.1.7 Cross‐sectional Fiber Shape and Luster 109

4.1.8 Acetate Fibers 111

4.2 Regenerated Protein Fibers 113

4.2.1 Soybean Fibers 114

4.2.2 Milk Fibers 117

4.2.3 Composite Cellulose Fibers 117

References 120

5 Synthetic Fibers 123

5.1 Nylon 123

5.2 Polyester 124

5.3 Luster 126

5.4 Delustering 126

5.5 Longitudinal View 128

5.6 Variety of Cross‐sectional Shapes 128

5.7 Comparison Analysis 131

5.8 Fibers in Carpeting 133

5.9 Fabric Tenacity 134

5.10 Performance Textiles 135

5.11 Acrylic Fibers 136

5.12 Fiber Cross‐sections 137

5.13 Fiber Longitudinal View 138

5.14 Spandex 141

5.15 Olefin 143

5.16 Fiber Melting Point 144

5.17 Microfibers 146

5.17.1 Applications of Microfibers 150

5.17.2 Imitation Leather/Suede 157

References 159

6 Nanofibers 161

6.1 Nanotechnology in Textiles 161

6.1.1 Production of Nanofibers 163

6.1.2 Uses of Nanofibers 163

6.1.3 Nanowebs 164

6.1.4 Nanocoatings 166

6.1.5 Nanoparticles 167

6.1.6 Electrically Conductive Fibers 168

6.1.7 Porous Surface Fibers 169

6.1.8 Microscopy 170

References 170

7 Recycled Fibers 173

7.1 Fiber Recycling 173

7.2 Recycled Polyester via Chemical Recycling 173

7.2.1 Microscopic Appearance 174

7.3 Recycled PET via Mechanical Recycling 174

7.3.1 Microscopic Images 176

7.4 Recycling Nylon 177

7.5 Recycled Cotton 177

7.5.1 Microscopic Appearance 179

7.6 Recycled Wool 179

7.6.1 Microscopic Appearance 180

7.7 Other Recycling Methods – Using a Rayon Manufacturing Method to Recycle Fibers – A Dissolution‐Based Recycling Method 181

7.7.1 Microscopic Appearance 182

7.7.2 Recycling Blends 182

References 184

8 Historic Fibers 187

8.1 Textile Fibers and History 187

8.1.1 General Information – Ancient Textiles 188

8.1.2 Greek Textiles 188

8.2 The Use of Hemp in Central Europe 194

8.3 Egyptian Textiles 194

8.3.1 Middle Kingdom Linen Cloth 195

8.3.2 Romano‐Egyptian Textiles 196

References 198

Index 201