Skip to main content

Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries, 2nd Edition

E-Book

$137.99

Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries, 2nd Edition

Alireza Bahadori

ISBN: 978-1-119-55175-1 September 2019 440 Pages

E-Book
$137.99
E-Book
$137.99
Hardcover
Pre-order
$172.00
O-Book
Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer

Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description. Download Product Flyer is to download PDF in new tab. This is a dummy description.

Description

Unravels fundamental engineering for the treatment, recovery, and disposal of solid waste, sludge and wastewater in the petroleum, chemical, and unconventional oil and gas processing industries

This new edition unravels essential requirements for the process design and engineering of the equipment and facilities pertaining to waste management for gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, and petrochemical plants.

Updated throughout, Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries, Second Edition offers chapters on wastewater treatment; physical unit operations; chemical treatment; biological treatment; and wastewater treatment in unconventional oil and gas industries. It also covers wastewater sewer systems; sewage treatment; and solid waste treatment and disposal.

New topics include:

  • water pollution terminals
  • the design procedure for effluent water pollution control
  • spill prevention and control
  • groundwater pollution control
  • wastewater pollution control in crude oil terminals
  • Information on the source of polymeric plants
  • examination of water and wastewater radioactivity
  • soil pollution
  • pipeline leak consequence evaluation

Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries, Second Edition is an ideal text for researchers and advanced students in chemical, petroleum, and environmental fields, as well as for those in civil engineering.

Preface xv

About the Author xix

1 Wastewater Treatment 1

1.1 Characteristics of Wastewater 2

1.1.1 Wastewater Classifications 5

1.1.2 Water Pollution Terminals 5

1.1.3 Suspended Solids 6

1.1.4 Heavy Metals 6

1.1.5 Dissolved Inorganic Solids 7

1.1.6 Toxic Organic Compounds 7

1.1.7 Surfactants 7

1.1.8 Priority Pollutants 9

1.1.9 Volatile Organic Compounds 9

1.2 Treatment Stages 9

1.2.1 Sources of Wastewater 11

1.2.2 Discharge Options and Quality Requirements 11

1.3 Effluent Water Pollution Control 13

1.3.1 Spill Prevention and Control 14

1.3.2 Groundwater Pollution Control 16

1.4 Treatment Processes 18

1.4.1 Wastewater Pollution Oil Terminals 20

1.4.2 Simple Gravity Separation 21

1.4.3 Residual Suspended Matter 21

1.4.4 Selection of Treatment Processes 22

1.5 Siting and Design 24

1.5.1 Aquatic Ecosystems 25

1.5.2 Terrestrial Ecosystems 25

1.5.3 Wetland Ecosystems 27

1.5.4 Land Use 28

1.5.5 Water Pollution Control 28

1.6 Sources of Effluent in the Petrochemical Industry 29

1.6.1 Water Pollution 29

1.6.2 Cooling Water 29

1.6.3 Washing Water and Process Water 29

1.6.4 Typical Pollutants in the Petrochemical Industry 29

1.6.5 Petrochemical Waste Treatment 30

1.6.6 Fertilizer 31

1.7 Effect of Pollution 33

1.7.1 Major Pollutants 33

1.8 Olefin Plants 34

1.8.1 Polymeric Plants 35

1.8.2 Polyvinyl Chloride Plants 36

1.8.3 Aromatic Plants 37

1.9 Environmental Protection for Industrial Waste 37

1.9.1 Important Factors in Process Selection 37

1.10 Chemical Oxygen Demand in Wastewater Systems 44

1.10.1 Determination of COD 44

1.10.2 Calculation of Theoretical Oxygen Demand 45

2 Physical Unit Operations 47

2.1 Flow Measurement 47

2.2 Screening 47

2.3 Comminution 50

2.4 Grit Removal 50

2.5 Gravity Separation 51

2.5.1 General 51

2.5.2 Application 52

2.5.3 Oil–Water Separators: General Design Considerations 53

2.5.4 Conventional, Rectangular Channel (API) Separators 53

2.5.5 Parallel-Plate Separators 65

2.5.6 Oil Traps 67

2.5.7 Oil Holding Basins 68

2.6 Flow Equalization 68

2.6.1 Application and Location 68

2.6.2 Volume Requirements 69

2.7 Mixing 70

2.7.1 Description and Type 70

2.7.2 Application 70

2.8 Sedimentation 71

2.8.1 Sedimentation Theory 71

2.8.2 Application and Type 73

2.8.3 Design Considerations 74

2.8.4 Number of Basins 75

2.8.5 Inlet Arrangements 75

2.8.6 Short-Circuiting 76

2.8.7 Outlet Arrangements 76

2.8.8 Detention Time 76

2.8.9 Surface Loading Rate 76

2.8.10 Factors Affecting Sedimentation 76

2.9 Dissolved Air Flotation 78

2.9.1 General 78

2.9.2 System Configuration 79

2.9.3 Variables Affecting DAF Efficiency 80

2.9.4 Treatability Testing 80

2.9.5 Design Considerations 81

2.9.6 Instruments and Control 86

2.9.7 Piping 86

2.9.8 Chemicals Facilities 87

2.9.9 Material 87

2.9.10 Estimation of Air Concentration in DAF Systems 87

2.10 Granular-Media Filters 93

2.10.1 General 93

2.10.2 Filter Types and Applications 94

2.10.3 System Design Parameters 96

2.10.4 Cycle Time 98

2.10.5 Vessels and Appurtenances 99

2.10.6 Instrumentation and Controls 100

3 Chemical Treatments 103

3.1 Introduction 103

3.1.1 Chemical Precipitation 103

3.1.2 Chemical Coagulation 103

3.1.3 Chemical Oxidation and Advanced Oxidation 104

3.1.4 Ion Exchange 104

3.1.5 Chemical Stabilization 106

3.2 Definition and Application 106

3.2.1 Activated Carbon Adsorption 106

3.3 Chemical Precipitation 109

3.4 Chemical Flocculation 109

3.4.1 Definition and Applications 110

3.4.2 Design Considerations 112

3.4.3 Clarifiers 112

3.4.4 Chemical Addition Systems 115

3.5 Disinfection 116

3.5.1 Chemical Agents 116

3.5.2 Mechanical Means of Disinfection 116

3.6 Chlorination 118

3.6.1 Chlorine Dosages 118

3.6.2 Design Considerations 119

3.7 Water Monitoring 120

3.7.1 Design Considerations for a Water Monitoring System 121

3.8 On-Site Portable Instruments for Water Pollution Control 121

3.8.1 Alternative Current Colorimeter 122

3.8.2 Online Fixed Measurement or Continuous Monitoring 122

3.8.3 Continuous Water Sampling and Clarification System 122

3.8.4 Laboratory Instruments 122

3.8.5 Soil Water Sampling 125

3.8.6 Groundwater Sampling 126

3.9 Physical Examination 126

3.9.1 Color 126

3.9.2 Conductivity 127

3.9.3 Turbidity 128

3.9.4 Determination of Metals 128

3.9.5 Polarography 128

3.9.6 Determination of Organic Constituents 129

3.9.7 Combustible Gas Indicator 130

3.9.8 Total Organic Carbon 130

3.9.9 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 131

3.9.10 Chemical Oxygen Demand 131

3.9.11 Examination of Water and Wastewater Radioactivity 131

3.10 Automated Laboratory Equipment for Monitoring Water and Wastewater 133

3.10.1 Loading Losses 133

3.10.2 Emissions to Water 134

4 Biological Treatments 137

4.1 Theory 137

4.1.1 Biological Activated Carbon Process 139

4.1.2 Biokinetic Theoretical Model 140

4.2 Biological Treatment Processes 142

4.2.1 Major Differences in Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment 144

4.2.2 Aerobic Processes 146

4.2.3 Anaerobic Waste Treatment 149

4.2.4 Aerobic-Anaerobic (Facultative) Waste Treatment 149

4.3 Activated Sludge Units 150

4.3.1 Applications 151

4.3.2 Effects of Activated Sludge 151

4.3.3 Feed Composition 152

4.3.4 Process Design 157

4.3.5 Design Considerations 158

4.4 Trickling Filters 160

4.4.1 Trickling Filter Process Design 162

4.5 Rotating Biological Contactor System 163

4.6 Sewage Oxidation Ponds 164

5 Wastewater Treatment in the Unconventional Oil and Gas Industries 167

5.1 Background 167

5.1.1 Dissolved and Dispersed Hydrocarbon Components 169

5.1.2 Dissolved Minerals 169

5.1.3 Production Chemicals 169

5.1.4 Produced Solids 170

5.1.5 Dissolved Gases 170

5.2 Toxicity Limitations of Coal Bed Water 171

5.3 Shale Gas and CSG Produced Water: Treatment, and Disposal 174

5.3.1 Evaporation Ponds 174

5.3.2 Surface-Stream Disposal 174

5.3.3 Ion Exchange 176

5.3.4 Membrane Filtration Technology 176

5.3.5 Freeze-Thaw Evaporation 178

5.3.6 Adsorption 178

5.3.7 Chemical Oxidation 178

5.3.8 Filtration 179

5.3.9 Constructed Wetlands 179

5.3.10 Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversal 179

5.3.11 Deep Well Injection at Dedicated Onshore Sites 180

5.3.12 Biological Aerated Filters 180

5.3.13 Macro-porous Polymer Extraction Technology 181

5.3.14 Thermal Technologies 181

5.4 Re-thinking Technologies for Safer Facing 185

5.5 Water Treatment for Oil Sands Mining 191

5.5.1 Recycling and Water Treatment Options 192

5.5.2 Oily Water Treatment in Oil Sands Mining 193

6 Wastewater Sewer Systems 199

6.1 Storm Water Sewer System 200

6.2 Oily Water Sewer System 200

6.3 Non-Oily Water Sewer System 201

6.4 Chemical Sewer System(s) 202

6.4.1 Disposal of Chemical Sewers 202

6.4.2 Neutralization Systems 202

6.4.3 Types of Chemical Waste 202

6.5 Sanitary Sewer System 203

6.6 Special Sewer Systems 203

6.7 Effluent Sources and Disposal 203

6.8 Particular Effluents in Refinery and Petrochemical Plants 205

6.8.1 Caustic Scrubs (Heavy Oils) 205

6.8.2 Desalter Wastewater 205

6.8.3 Foul or Sour Water 206

6.8.4 Spent Caustic Solutions 206

6.8.5 MTBE or Leaded Contaminated Streams 208

6.8.6 Benzene Contaminated Streams 208

6.8.7 Spent Sulfuric Acid Products 209

6.8.8 Nitrogen Base Components 210

6.8.9 Cyanides 210

6.8.10 Aluminum Chloride 210

6.8.11 Polyelectrolyte 210

6.8.12 Ferric Chloride 211

6.8.13 Phosphoric Acid 211

6.8.14 Hydrofluoric Acid 211

6.8.15 Other Spent Catalysts 211

6.8.16 Chemical Cleaning Waste 211

6.8.17 Sulfur Solidification and Crushing Facilities, and Loading Systems Drainage 211

6.8.18 Water Containing Solids, Emulsifying Agents, etc 212

6.8.19 Heavy Viscous Oils Drainage 212

6.8.20 Toxic Metal Contaminated Streams 212

6.8.21 Solvent Processes Drainage 212

6.8.22 Treating Processes Drainage 212

6.9 Petrochemical Plant Special Effluents 212

6.9.1 Summary of Disposal/Treatment Methods 213

6.10 NGL, LNG, and LPG Area Effluents 215

6.10.1 Liquefied Gas Spill 215

6.11 Gas Treatment Facilities Effluents 216

6.12 Effluents from Terminals, Depots, and Product Handling Areas 216

6.13 General Considerations and Conditions for Release of Waste 216

6.13.1 Characteristics and Composition of Waste 216

6.13.2 Characteristics of the Discharge Site and Receiving Environment 217

6.13.3 Availability of Waste Technologies 217

6.14 Effluent Wastewater Characteristics 218

6.14.1 Flow 218

6.14.2 Temperature 218

6.14.3 pH 218

6.14.4 Oxygen Demand 219

6.14.5 Phenol Content 219

6.14.6 Sulfide Content 219

6.14.7 Oil Content 220

6.14.8 Light Hydrocarbon Solubility in Water 220

6.14.9 Predicting the Mutual Solubility of Water–Hydrocarbon Systems 221

6.15 Wastewater Emissions 226

6.15.1 Point Source Discharge 226

6.15.2 Effluent Permissible Concentrations 228

6.16 Unsaturated Zone 232

6.17 Site Assessment 232

6.18 Gathering Release Information 233

7 Sewage Treatment 237

7.1 Sewage Effluents 238

7.1.1 Receiving Water 238

7.1.2 Final Effluents of Domestic Wastewater Plants 239

7.2 Methods of Sewage Treatment: General 239

7.2.1 Conventional Methods 239

7.3 Choice of System: General 239

7.4 Design of Sewage Treatment Plants: General Guidance 240

7.5 Design of Small Sewage Treatment Plants 240

7.5.1 Collection of Information 240

7.6 Preliminary Treatment 242

7.7 Primary and Secondary Settlement Tanks 242

7.7.1 Capacities of Primary Settlement Tanks 243

7.8 Sludge Digesters 244

7.9 Drying Beds 244

7.9.1 Secondary Settlement Tanks 245

7.10 Biological Filters 246

7.10.1 Distribution 247

7.10.2 Volume of Filter 247

7.10.3 Mineral Filter Media 247

7.11 Activated Sludge Units 248

7.12 Tertiary Treatment (Polishing) Processes 249

7.13 Disposal of Final Effluent 249

7.14 Advanced Wastewater Treatment 250

7.14.1 Effects of Chemical Constituents in Wastewater 250

7.14.2 Advanced Wastewater Treatment Operations and Processes 250

7.15 Effluent Disposal and Reuse 250

7.15.1 Direct and Indirect Reuse of Wastewater 250

8 Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal 257

8.1 Basic Considerations 257

8.1.1 Classification 257

8.1.2 Methodology 257

8.1.3 Sources 258

8.1.4 Characteristics 261

8.1.5 Quantities 261

8.2 Sludge Handling, Treatment, and Reuse 261

8.2.1 General 261

8.2.2 Sludge and Scum Pumping 264

8.2.3 Sludge Piping 268

8.2.4 Preliminary Operation Facilities 270

8.2.5 Thickening (Concentration) 272

8.3 Stabilization 274

8.3.1 Design Considerations 275

8.3.2 Lime Stabilization 275

8.3.3 Heat Treatment 275

8.3.4 Anaerobic Sludge Digestion 276

8.3.5 Composting 278

8.4 Conditioning 278

8.5 Disinfection 278

8.6 Dewatering 279

8.6.1 Sludge Dewatering Methods 279

8.6.2 Vacuum Filtration 279

8.6.3 Centrifugation 281

8.6.4 Belt Filter Press 282

8.6.5 Sludge Drying Beds 282

8.6.6 Lagoons 283

8.7 Heat Drying 283

8.8 Thermal Reduction 284

8.8.1 Thermal Reduction Process Applications 284

8.9 Land Application of Sludge 285

8.10 Chemical Fixation 286

8.11 Gathering Contaminant-Specific Information 286

8.12 Evaluating Contaminant Mobility 288

8.13 Technology Selection 288

8.13.1 Soil Venting 289

8.13.2 Biorestoration 289

8.13.3 Soil Flushing 289

8.13.4 Hydraulic Methods 290

8.13.5 Excavation 290

8.14 Saturated Zone 291

8.15 Site Assessment 291

8.15.1 Gathering Contaminant-Specific Information 291

8.15.2 Evaluating the Contaminant Phase in the Saturated Zone 292

8.16 Evaluating Contaminant Mobility 294

8.16.1 Mass of Dissolved and Sorbed Contaminants in Groundwater 294

8.16.2 Extent of Contaminant Plume 295

8.16.3 Mobility of Contamination in the Saturated Zone 296

8.17 Setting Remediation Goals 296

8.18 Technology Selection 296

8.19 Dissolved Contaminants 297

8.19.1 Trench Excavation 297

8.19.2 Pumping Well Installation 297

8.19.3 Recovery of Floating NAPL 298

8.19.4 Treatment of Contaminants Dissolved in Groundwater 298

8.20 Methodology for Pipeline Leak Consequence Evaluation 300

8.20.1 Evaluation of Leak 300

8.20.2 Potential Leak Rate and Leak Mass 302

8.20.3 Environmental Consequence Factor 304

8.21 Leak Detection Techniques 306

8.21.1 Balancing Mass Input Versus Output 307

8.21.2 Pressure and/or Flow Analysis 310

8.21.3 Monitoring of Characteristic Signals Generated by a Leak 310

8.21.4 Off-Line Leak Detection 311

8.22 Leakproof Control of Pipeline Gas Piping, Tanks, and Technological Installations Using Radioactive Tracers 312

8.22.1 Leak Detection in Liquid Pipelines 313

8.22.2 Leak Detection in Gas Pipelines 313

8.23 Final Sludge and Solids Conveyance, Storage, and Disposal 314

8.23.1 Conveyance Methods 315

8.23.2 Environmental Considerations in Sludge Transportation 315

8.23.3 Sludge Storage 315

8.23.4 Final Disposal 316

8.23.5 Incineration 317

8.23.6 Ash Handling and Disposal 318

8.24 Disposal of Solid Waste 318

8.24.1 Types of Waste 318

8.24.2 Siting of Hazardous Waste Facilities 319

8.24.3 Non-Hazardous Waste 320

8.24.4 Sources, Segregation, Quantities, and Characteristics of Solid Waste in Refineries 321

8.24.5 Source Reduction Methods 323

8.24.6 Resource Recovery and Waste Minimization 324

8.24.7 Hazardous Waste Reduction 328

8.24.8 Treatment Prior to Ultimate Disposal 330

8.24.9 Disposal of Waste Generated in Drilling Wells 336

8.24.10 General Sampling Considerations 337

8.24.11 Air Monitoring of Waste for Employee Protection 343

8.24.12 Procedures 344

8.24.13 Hazards 345

8.24.14 Quality Assurance Considerations 346

8.25 Emissions to Land 346

8.25.1 Groundwater Monitoring 346

8.25.2 Spills 347

8.26 Evaluation of Soil Infiltration Problems 348

8.26.1 Predictive Tool 348

8.26.2 Sample Calculations for Practice Engineers 351

Definitions and Terminology 353

Bibliography 383

Index 403