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Cotton Production

Khawar Jabran (Editor), Bhagirath Singh Chauhan (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-38551-6 August 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 432 Pages

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Description

Provides a comprehensive overview of the role of cotton in the economy and cotton production around the world

This book offers a complete look at the world’s largest fiber crop: cotton. It examines its effect on the global economy—its uses and products, harvesting and processing, as well as the major challenges and their solutions, recent trends, and modern technologies involved in worldwide production of cotton.

Cotton Production presents recent developments achieved by major cotton producing regions around the world, including China, India, USA, Pakistan, Turkey and Europe, South America, Central Asia, and Australia. In addition to origin and history, it discusses the recent advances in management practices, as well as the agronomic challenges and the solutions in the major cotton producing areas of the world. Keeping a focus on global context, the book provides sufficient details regarding the management of cotton crops. These details are not limited to the choice of cultivar, soil management, fertilizer and water management, pest control, cotton harvesting, and processing.

  • The first book to cover all aspects of cotton production in a global context
  • Details the role of cotton in the economy, the uses and products of cotton, and its harvesting and processing
  • Discusses the current state of cotton management practices and issues within and around the world’s cotton producing areas
  • Provides insight into the ways to improve cotton productivity in order to keep pace with the growing needs of an increasing population 

Cotton Production is an essential book for students taking courses in agronomy and cropping systems as well as a reference for agricultural advisors, extension specialists, and professionals throughout the industry.

List of Contributors xvii

1 An Introduction to Global Production Trends and Uses, History and Evolution, and Genetic and Biotechnological Improvements in Cotton 1
Khawar Jabran, Sami Ul‐Allah, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan, and Allah Bakhsh

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Global Production Trends of Cotton 2

1.3 Uses and Products of Cotton 5

1.4 History and Evolution of Cotton 5

1.5 Genetic Improvement in Cotton 8

1.6 Role of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering in Improving Cotton 11

1.7 Biotech Cotton Against Biotic and Abiotic Stresses 12

1.8 Biotech Cotton with Enhanced Resistance Against Abiotic Stress 14

1.9 Conclusions 15

References 16

2 Morphology, Physiology and Ecology of Cotton 23
Abdul Rehman and Muhammad Farooq

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Morphology of Cotton 24

2.3 Temporal Dynamics of Cotton Leaves, Canopies, and Fiber Development 32

2.4 Physiology of Defoliation in Cotton Production 32

2.5 Physiology of Insect‐Cotton Plant Interaction 33

2.6 Effect of Abiotic Stresses on Cotton Physiology 33

2.7 Agronomic Management of Cotton 37

2.8 Organic Cotton Production 38

2.9 Conclusion 39

References 39

3 Water Management in Cotton 47
Avishek Datta, Hayat Ullah, Zannatul Ferdous, Raquel Santiago-Arenas, and Ahmed Attia

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Water Uptake in Cotton 48

3.3 Germination and Growth of Cotton in Relation to Water Availability 49

3.4 Water Management Methods 51

3.5 Drought Stress in Cotton: Impacts and Management 54

3.6 Conclusions 56

References 56

4 Nutrient Management in Cotton 61
Jingxiu Xiao and Xinhua Yin

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms in Cotton 62

4.3 Diseases and Cotton Nutrition 66

4.4 Macronutrient Management 67

4.5 Micronutrient Management 70

4.6 Drip Irrigation and Cotton Nutrients 72

4.7 Foliar Fertilization 73

4.8 Conclusion 74

References 75

5 Insect Pest Management in Cotton 85
Muhammad Razaq, Robert Mensah, and Habib‐ur‐Rehman Athar

5.1 Introduction 85

5.2 Genetically Modified Cotton: Benefits and Threats 87

5.3 Evolution of Resistance to BT Cotton and Management Strategies 88

5.4 Management of Resistance to BT Crops 89

5.5 Sucking Insect Pests 90

5.6 Impact of Genetically Modified Cotton on Sucking Insect Pests and their Management 92

5.7 Chemical Insecticide Use, Modes of Action, and Resistance 93

5.8 Modes of Action of Insecticides Used on Cotton 94

5.9 Modes of Action and Toxicity 94

5.10 Integrated Pest Management 96

5.11 Avoidance of Pests 96

5.12 Sampling and Monitoring Pest Populations for Effective IPM Programs 98

5.13 Conclusions 101

Acknowledgments 102

References 102

6 Weed Management in Cotton 109
Nadeem Iqbal, Asad M. Khan, and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Weed Flora of Cotton 110

6.3 Impact of Weeds on Cotton 110

6.4 Herbicide‐resistant Weeds 113

6.5 Preventive Weed Management 114

6.6 Cultural Weed Management 115

6.7 Mechanical Weed Management 118

6.8 Chemical Weed Control 118

6.9 Integrated Weed Management in Cotton 121

6.10 Conclusions 122

References 122

7 Integrated Management of Major Fungal, Bacterial, Viral, and Nematode Diseases of Cotton 127
Lily L. Pereg and Tamene T. Tolessa

7.1 General Background 127

7.2 Fungal Diseases of Cotton 128

7.3 Bacterial Diseases of Cotton 138

7.4 Viral Diseases of Cotton 138

7.5 Disease Caused by Nematodes 139

7.6 An Overview of Cotton Disease Management 140

7.7 Conclusions 141

References 141

8 Seed Production, Harvesting, and Ginning of Cotton 145
Gautam Majumdar, Suman Bala Singh, and Sujeet Kumar Shukla

8.1 Basic Principles for Seed Production in Cotton 145

8.2 Harvesting 152

8.3 Ginning 161

8.4 Conclusions 171

References 172

9 Cotton Production in China 175
Mao Shuchun, Li Yabing, Wang Zhanbiao, Zhi Xiaoyu, Li Pengcheng, and Xue Huiyun

9.1 Introduction 175

9.2 The Development of Cotton Production 175

9.3 Division of Cotton‐Producing Regions and Innovation of the Cotton Farming System 177

9.4 Planting Systems 180

9.5 Cotton Varieties and Genetic Modification 180

9.6 Cotton Genetic Modification 181

9.7 Technologies for Cotton Production 182

9.8 Prospects for Further Cotton Production Development 189

9.9 Conclusion 190

References 190

10 Cotton Production in India 193
D. Blaise and K. R. Kranthi

10.1 Introduction 193

10.2 History, Importance, Area, and Production 193

10.3 Land Preparation and Planting 196

10.4 Seed Rate and Spacing 197

10.5 Cotton Based Cropping Systems 198

10.6 Major Production Constraints 199

10.7 Fertilizer Management 201

10.8 Cotton Insect Pests in India and Their Management 203

10.9 Cotton Diseases in India and Their Management 206

10.10 Cotton Weeds in India and Their Management 207

10.11 Harvesting and Yields 208

10.12 Processing and Products 209

10.13 Challenges and Opportunities 210

10.14 Conclusions 211

References 212

11 Cotton Production in the United States of America: An Overview 217
Tyson B. Raper, Cristiane Pilon, Vijay Singh, John Snider, Scott Stewart, and Seth Byrd

11.1 History, Production Areas, and Yield 217

11.2 Varieties and Genetic Improvement 219

11.3 Cotton Production Methods 223

11.4 Seedbed Preparation 223

11.5 Planting 224

11.6 Early‐Season Management 225

11.7 Mid‐Season Management 226

11.8 Pre‐Harvest 227

11.9 Harvesting 227

11.10 Crop Nutrition and Pest Management 230

11.10.1 Fertilizer 230

11.11 Weed Management 231

11.12 Insect Management 234

11.13 Major Production Constraints 234

11.14 Irrigation Scheduling 238

11.15 Conclusion 241

References 242

12 Cotton Production in Pakistan 249
Muhammad Amjad Ali, Jehanzeb Farooq, Asia Batool, Adil Zahoor, Farrukh Azeem, Abid Mahmood, and Khawar Jabran

12.1 Introduction 249

12.2 History, Importance, Area, and Production 250

12.3 Breeding Methods 258

12.4 Land Marks in History of Cotton Breeding in Punjab, Pakistan 260

12.5 Cotton Production Methods 264

12.6 Weeds of Cotton 267

12.7 Cotton Production Constraints in Pakistan 267

12.8 Challenges and Opportunities 269

12.9 Pest Management 270

12.10 Harvesting and Yields 271

12.11 Processing and Products 272

12.12 Conclusions 272

References 273

13 Cotton Production in Brazil and Other South American Countries 277
Lucia Vieira Hoffmann, Ivan Bonacic Kresic, Jorge Gabriel Paz, Diego Alberto Bela, Nydia Elisa Tcach, Fernando Mendes Lamas, and Valdinei Sofiatti

13.1 Introduction 277

13.2 History 278

13.3 Varieties and Genetic Improvement 279

13.4 Cotton‐Based Cropping Systems in Brazil and Argentina 282

13.5 Major Production Constraints 285

13.6 Challenges and Opportunities 285

13.7 Harvesting 290

13.8 Processing and Products 291

13.9 Conclusions 291

References 291

14 Cotton Production in Turkey and Europe 297
Huseyin Basal, Emine Karademir, Hatice Kubra Goren, Volkan Sezener, Mehmet Nedim Dogan, Ibrahim Gencsoylu, and Oktay Erdogan

14.1 Introduction 297

14.2 History of Cotton Production and Textile Manufacturing in Turkey 298

14.3 Cotton Production in Turkey 299

14.4 Organic Cotton Production in Turkey 300

14.5 Cotton Based Cropping Systems 302

14.6 Varieties and Genetic Improvement 302

14.7 Cotton Production Methods 304

14.8 Major Production Constraints 304

14.9 Challenges and Opportunities 305

14.10 Cotton Diseases and Control 309

14.11 Weed Control in Cotton Production in Turkey 310

14.12 Harvesting and Yield 312

14.13 Cotton Production in Europe 315

14.14 Cotton Production in Spain 316

14.15 Cotton Production in Bulgaria 316

14.16 Conclusions 316

References 317

15 Cotton Production in Central Asia 323
Mahsa Pourali Kahriz, Parisa Pourali Kahriz, and Khalid Mahmood Khawar

15.1 Introduction 323

15.2 History, Importance, Area, and Production 324

15.3 Uzbekistan 325

15.4 Cotton Based Cropping Systems 326

15.5 Varieties and Genetic Improvement: Cotton Production Methods 326

15.6 Major Production Constraints 328

15.7 Fertilizer and Pest Management 329

15.8 Processing and Products 331

15.9 Turkmenistan 332

15.10 Tajikistan 332

15.11 Kazakhstan 333

15.12 Kyrgyzstan 334

15.13 Conclusions 335

References 335

16 Cotton Production in Australia 341
Parminder Kaur, Tejinder Bhagria, Navneet Kaur Mutti, Abhimanyu Rinwa, Gulshan Mahajan, and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

16.1 Introduction 341

16.2 History, Importance, Area, and Production 342

16.3 Varieties and Genetic Improvement 343

16.4 Production Technology 344

16.5 Row Spacing and Plant Population 345

16.6 Crop Development 346

16.7 No‐Till Planting of Cotton into Cereal Stubble 346

16.8 Growth Regulators in Cotton Production 346

16.9 Irrigation 347

16.10 Cotton‐based Cropping Systems 348

16.11 Fertilizer Management 349

16.12 Insect‐pest Management 349

16.13 Weed Management 351

16.14 Major Production Constraints 352

16.15 Challenges and Opportunities 353

16.16 Conclusions 355

References 355

17 Cotton Production in Africa 359
Khizer Amanet, Emmanuel Obianuju Chiamaka, Gabriel Willie Quansah, Muhammad Mubeen, Hafiz Umar Farid, Rida Akram, and Wajid Nasim

17.1 Introduction 359

17.2 History, Importance, Area, and Production 360

17.3 Cotton Based Cropping System in African Countries 362

17.4 Varieties and Genetic Improvement of Cotton in Africa 363

17.5 Major Production Constraints in Africa 363

17.6 Challenges and Opportunities 366

17.7 Harvesting and Yields 367

17.8 Conclusion 367

References 367

18 Challenges and Opportunities in Cotton Production 371
Mahboobeh Mollaee, Ahmadreza Mobli, Navneet Kaur Mutti, Sudheesh Manalil, and Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

18.1 Introduction 371

18.2 GM Cotton 372

18.3 Conservation Agriculture in Cotton 374

18.4 Cotton Production under Salt Stress and Water Logging 375

18.5 Climate Change and Cotton Production 377

18.6 Cotton Hybrids 378

18.7 Cotton Wastes for Energy 379

18.8 Crop Modeling in Cotton 380

18.9 Organic Cotton Production 380

18.10 Conclusions 382

References 383

Index 391