PREFACE.

**Part I INTRODUCTION.**

**1. Basic Calculations.**

Introduction.

Units and Dimensions.

Conversion of Units.

The Gravitational Constant, gc.

Significant Figures and Scientific Notation.

References.

**2. Process Variables.**

Introduction.

Temperature.

Pressure.

Moles and Molecular Weights.

Mass and Volume.

Viscosity.

Heat Capacity.

Thermal Conductivity.

Reynolds Number.

pH.

Vapor Pressure.

Property Estimation.

References.

**3. Gas Laws.**

Introduction.

Boyle's and Charles' Laws.

The Ideal Gas Law.

Standard Conditions.

Partial Pressure and Partial Volume.

Critical and Reduced Properties.

Non-Ideal Gas Behavior.

Non-Ideal Mixtures.

References.

**4. Conservation Laws.**

Introduction.

The Conservation Laws.

The Conservation Law for Momentum.

The Conservation Law for Mass.

The Conservation Law for Energy.

References.

**5. Stoichiometry.**

Introduction.

Combustion of Methane.

Excess and Limiting Reactant(s).

Combustion of Ethane.

Combustion of Chlorobenzene.

References.

**6. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.**

Introduction.

Qualitative Review of the Second Law.

Quantitative Review of the Second Law.

Ideal Work and Lost Work.

The Heat Exchanger Dilemma.

Chemical Plant and Process Applications.

The Third Law of Thermodynamics.

References.

**Part II ENTHALPY EFFECTS.**

**7. Sensible Enthalpy Effects.**

Introduction.

The Gibbs Phase Rule (GPR).

Enthalpy Values.

Heat Capacity Values.

Predictive Methods for Heat Capacity.

References.

**8. Latent Enthalpy Effects.**

Introduction.

The Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) Equation.

Predictive Methods: Normal Boiling Point.

Predictive Methods: Other Temperatures.

Industrial Applications.

References.

**9. Enthalpy of Mixing Effects.**

Introduction.

Enthalpy-Concentration Diagrams.

H_{2}SO_{4}-H_{2}O Diagram.

NaOH-H_{2}O Diagram.

Enthalpy of Mixing at Infinite Dilution.

Evaporator Design.

References.

**10. Chemical Reaction Enthalpy Effects.**

Introduction.

Standard Enthalpy of Formation.

Standard Enthalpy of Reaction.

Effect of Temperature on Enthalpy of Reaction.

Gross and Net Heating Values.

References.

**Part III EQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS.**

**11. Phase Equilibrium Principles.**

Introduction.

Psychometric Chart.

Raoult's Law.

Henry's Law.

Raoult's Law vs Henry's Law.

Vapor-Solid Equilibrium.

Liquid-Solid Equilibrium.

References.

**12. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Calculations.**

Introduction.

The DePriester Charts.

Raoult’s Law Diagrams.

Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in Nonideal Solutions.

NRTL Diagrams.

Wilson Diagrams.

Relative Volatility.

References.

**13. Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Principles.**

Introduction.

Standard Free Energy of Formation, ∆G^{of}.

Standard Free Energy of Reaction, ∆G^{o}.

The Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Constant, K.

Effect of Temperature on ∆G^{o and K: Simplified Approach.}

^{Effect of Temperature on ∆Go and K: α, β, and γ Data.}

^{Effect of Temperature on ∆Go and K: a, b, and c Data.}

Procedures to Determine K.

References.

**14. Chemical Reaction Equilibrium Applications.**

Introduction.

Rate vs Equilibrium Considerations.

Extent of Reaction.

The Reaction Coordinate.

Gas Phase Reactions.

Equilibrium Conversion Calculations: Simplified Approach.

Equilibrium Conversion Calculations: Rigorous Approach.

Other Reactions.

References.

**Part IV OTHER TOPICS.**

**15. Economic Considerations.**

Introduction.

Capital Costs.

Operating Costs.

Project Evaluation.

Perturbation Studies in Optimization.

References.

**16. Open-Ended Problems.**

Introduction.

Developing Students’ Power of Critical Thinking.

Creativity.

Brainstorming.

Inquiring Minds.

References.

**17. Other ABET Topics.**

Introduction.

Environmental Management.

Health, Safety, and Accident Management.

Numerical Methods.

Ethics.

References.

**18. Fuel Options.**

Introduction.

Fuel Properties.

Natural Gas.

Liquid Fuels.

Coal.

Fuel Selection.

Stoichiometric Calculations.

References.

**19. Exergy: The Concept of "Quality Energy".**

Introduction.

The Quality of Heat vs Work.

Exergy.

Quantitative Exergy Analysis.

Environmental Impact.

Exergy Efficiency.

References.

**Appendix.**

I. Steam Tables.

A. Saturated Steam.

B. Superheated Steam.

C. Saturated Steam-Ice.

II. SI Units.

III. Conversion Constants.

IV. Selected Common Abbreviations.

**References.**

**Index.**