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Cardiac Mapping, 5th Edition

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Cardiac Mapping, 5th Edition

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Description

The expanded guide to cardiac mapping

The effective diagnosis and treatment of heart disease may vitally depend upon accurate and detailed cardiac mapping. However, in an era of rapid technological advancement, medical professionals can encounter difficulties maintaining an up-to-date knowledge of current methods. This fifth edition of the much-admired Cardiac Mapping is, therefore, essential, offering a level of cutting-edge insight that is unmatched in its scope and depth.

Featuring contributions from a global team of electrophysiologists, the book builds upon previous editions’ comprehensive explanations of the mapping, imaging, and ablation of the heart. Nearly 100 chapters provide fascinating accounts of topics ranging from the mapping of supraventricular and ventriculararrhythmias, to compelling extrapolations of how the field might develop in the years to come. In this text, readers will find:      

  • Full coverage of all aspects of cardiac mapping, and imaging
  • Explorations of mapping in experimental models of arrhythmias
  • Examples of new catheter-based techniques
  • Access to a companion website featuring additional content and illustrative video clips

Cardiac Mapping is an indispensable resource for scientists, clinical electrophysiologists, cardiologists, and all physicians who care for patients with cardiac arrhythmias.

Related Resources

About the Companion Website and Companion Digital Edition xii

List of Videos xiii

List of Contributors xvi

Editors of Previous Editions xxxiv

Preface to the Fifth Edition xxxv

Preface to the First Edition xxxvi

Foreword by Douglas P. Zipes and A. John Camm xxxvii

Part I Fundamentals of Cardiac Mapping

1 History of Cardiac Mapping 1
Stephan Zellerhoff, Lars Eckardt, and Gunter Breithardt

2 Embryology, Anatomy, and Pathology of Ventricular Outflow Tracts Related to Cardiac Mapping and Arrhythmias 7
Bastiaan J.D. Boukens, Cristina Basso, Federico Migliore, Stefania Rizzo, and Gaetano Thiene

3 Arrhythmogenic Venous Extremity of the Cardiac Tube 29
Marco Galeazzi

4 The Impact of Embryology and Anatomy on Cardiac Electrophysiology 37
Maxim Didenko and Fred Kusumoto

5 Cardiac Morphology Relevant to Mapping 46
Niyada Naksuk, Vaibhav R. Vaidya, Nirusha Lachman, and Samuel J. Asirvatham

6 Anatomy of the Outflow Tract Region: Relevance to Arrhythmias and Catheter Ablation 61
Andres Enriquez, Jason Bradfield, Kalyanam Shivkumar, and Fermin C. Garcia

7 Fundamentals of Cardiac Mapping 70
Fu Siong Ng, Caroline Roney, Chris D. Cantwell, and Nicholas S. Peters

8 Troubleshooting to Avoid Failed Ablation 84
Krishna Kancharla, Suraj Kapa, and Samuel J. Asirvatham

Part II Imaging Technologies in Cardiac Mapping and Ablation

9 Intracardiac Echocardiography 95
Pasquale Santangeli, Mathew D. Hutchinson, and David J. Callans

10 Role of Cardiac Computed Tomography Imaging to Guide Catheter Ablation of Arrhythmias in Complex Cardiac Morphologies 104
Farhood Saremi

11 Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Relation to Arrhythmias in Different Cardiomyopathies 123
John Duell and Timm Dickfeld

12 Multimodal Imaging for Cardiac Mapping 136
Donald D. Hegland, Kevin P. Jackson, and James P. Daubert

13 Light and the Heart: Cardiac Optogenetics 152
Naim Shaheen, Amit Gruber, and Lior Gepstein

14 Cardiac Mapping and Imaging in Patient Selection for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: How to Identify Super‐responders, Responders, and Non‐responders 170
Bettina Kirstein and Christopher Piorkowski

Part III Advances in Technology

15 Towards Non‐invasive Mapping and Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias 180
Edgard A. Prihadi, Victoria Delgado, and Jeroen J. Bax

16 New High‐Density and Automated Mapping Systems 197
Albert Y. Sun, Jonathan P. Piccini, and James P. Daubert

17 Non‐invasive Body Surface Potential Mapping of Reentrant Drivers in Human Atrial Fibrillation 211
Ruairidh Martin, Meleze Hocini, Remi Dubois, Nicholas Derval, Pierre Jais, and Michel Haissaguerre

18 Electrophysiology of Heart Failure: Non‐invasive Mapping of Substrate and Guidance of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with Electrocardiographic Imaging 220
Yoram Rudy

19 Contact Mapping and Ablation of Complex Cardiac Arrhythmias 236
Sanjiv M. Narayan, Junaid A.B. Zaman, Chad Brodt, Fatemah Shenasa, Tina Baykaner, and Wouter‐Jan Rappel

20 Advances in Atrial Fibrillation Ablation 252
Atul Verma and Mohammad Shenasa

21 Integration of Contact Force into Mapping and Ablation Systems: Does It Improve the Results? 289
Waqas Ullah and Richard Schilling

22 Advances in Molecular Imaging Relevant to Arrhythmias 300
Arnold F. Jacobson and Jagat Narula

Part IV Mapping in Experimental Models of Cardiac Arrhythmias

23 Optical Mapping of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ and Transmembrane Potential in the Intact Heart: Insights into Ca2+‐mediated Arrhythmias 313
Lianguo Wang and Crystal M. Ripplinger

24 Electrophysiological Substrates for Gender Difference in the Incidence of Torsades de Pointes Arrhythmias 321
Nabil El‐Sherif , Herman D. Himel, Yuan Yue, Mohamed Boutjdir , and Mark Restivo

25 Rotors in Animal Models of Atrial Fibrillation 330
Omer Berenfeld, David Filgueiras‐Rama, and Makarand Deo

26 Atrial Fibrillation from a Unipolar, High‐resolution Perspective 343
Natasja M.S. de Groot, Maurits A. Allessie, Lisette J.M.E. van der Does, and Ad J.J.C. Bogers

27 Mechanisms Underlying Arrhythmogenesis in the J‐wave Syndromes 351
Eleonora Savio‐Galimberti, Mariana Argenziano, and Charles Antzelevitch

28 Relationship Between Cardiac Alternans, Calcium Cycling, and Ventricular Arrhythmias 364
James N. Weiss and Zhilin Qu

29 Fibrosis and Arrhythmogenesis 375
Andre G. Kleber and Michiel J. Janse

30 Triggered Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias Initiated by Enhanced Late Inward Na and Ca Currents: Novel Therapeutic Targets 383
Hrayr S. Karagueuzian

31 Experimental VT: A New Porcine Model of Infarct‐related Reentrant VT 398
Elad Anter, Andrew L. Wit, and Mark E. Josephson

32 Experimental Mapping of Ventricular Arrhythmias: Intramural Pathways and Substrate 408
Nigel A. Lever, Ian J. LeGrice, Darren A. Hooks, Mark L. Trew , Bryan J. Caldwell, and Bruce H. Smaill

33 The Molecular Basis of Long QT Type 2 (LQT2)‐related Arrhythmias: How Sex Modifies the Risk of Torsades de Pointes 422
Jan Němec, Jong J. Kim, and Guy Salama

34 Optical Mapping of Arrhythmogenic Remodeling in the Failing Human Heart 431
Fu Siong Ng, Jaclyn A. Brennan, and Igor R. Efimov

35 Optical Mapping of Successful and Failed Defibrillation 448
Kedar K. Aras, Bastiaan J.D. Boukens, Crystal M. Ripplinger, Christopher R. Gloschat, and Igor R. Efimov

36 Atrial Patterns of Neurally Induced Repolarization Changes: Neuroablative Studies in Canines 464
Rene Cardinal and Pierre Page

Part V Mapping and Imaging in Atrial Fibrillation, Flutter, and Atrial Tachycardias

37 Clinical Relevance of Functional Models of Atrial Reentry and Fibrillation 473
Stanley Nattel and Vincent Algalorrondo

38 Rotor Mapping in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation 482
Sanjiv M. Narayan, Tina Baykaner, Chad Brodt, Junaid A.B. Zaman, Christopher A.B. Kowalewski, David Vidmar, and Wouter‐Jan Rappel

39 Rotor Mapping and Ablation in Persistent Atrial Fibrillation 496
Yenn‐Jiang Lin, Men‐Tzung Lo, Li‐Wei Lo, Fa‐Po Chung, and Shih‐Ann Chen

40 Mapping and Ablation of Atrial Flutter and its Variants 506
Gregory K. Feld, Jonathan Hsu, Gautam Lalani, and Amir Schricker

41 Mapping and Ablation of Left Atrial Flutter and Tachycardia: New Observations 530
Philipp Sommer and Gerhard Hindricks

42 Mapping and Ablation of Atrial Tachycardia 538
Karoly Kaszala, Jayanthi Koneru, and Kenneth A. Ellenbogen

43 Image‐based Risk Stratification for Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation 553
Jorge Romero, David Briceno, Carola Gianni, Sanghamitra Mohanty , Andrea Natale, Mario Garcia, and Luigi Di Biase

44 Revisiting Non‐pulmonary Vein Triggers 565
Carola Gianni, Javier E. Sanchez, Amin Al‐Ahmad, Rodney P. Horton, Patrick M. Hranitzky, J. David Burkhardt, Sanghamitra Mohanty, Chintan Trivedi, Luigi Di Biase, and Andrea Natale

45 Mechanisms of Antifibrillatory Agents for Atrial Fibrillation: Evidence Obtained from Experimental Models 580
Gerrit Frommeyer and Lars Eckardt

46 Stepwise Approach to Atrial Fibrillation Mapping and Ablation in Persistent and Long‐standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Short‐ and Long‐term Results 587
Julia Vogler, Boris A. Hoffmann, Daniel Steven, Christian Meyer, Benjamin Schaeffer, Doreen Schreiber, Arian Sultan, Thomas Rostock, and Stephan Willems

47 Mapping and Ablation of the Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System to Treat Atrial Fibrillation 594
Stavros Stavrakis, Paul Garabelli, Benjamin J. Scherlag, and Sunny S. Po

48 Remodeling in Atrial Fibrillation: Novel Mapping Studies 604
Thomas H. Everett IV and Jeffrey E. Olgin

49 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Mapping of Atrial Fibrosis and Atrial Fibrillation 618
Leenhapong Navaravong and Nassir F. Marrouche

50 Fibrotic Atrial Cardiomyopathy: Implications for Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation 628
Hans Kottkamp, Andreas Rieger, Fabian Moser, and Christian Poenisch

51 Mapping and Ablation of the Left Atrial Appendage 635
Anthony J. Choi and Moussa Mansour

52 Electrogram‐based Mapping and Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation 643
Ayman A. Hussein and Walid Saliba

53 Phase Mapping of Human Atrial Fibrillation 652
Mohammed Saeed, Omer Berenfeld, and Hakan Oral

54 Trials on Atrial Fibrillation Mapping and Ablation 660
Antonio Sorgente and Riccardo Cappato

Part VI Mapping of Supraventricular Arrhythmias

55 Entrainment Mapping in Supraventricular Tachycardias 665
John M. Miller, Rahul Jain, Gopi Dandamudi, Seeongwook Han, and Thomas R. Kambur

56 The Problematic Postpacing Interval 678
John M. Miller, Rahul Jain, Gopi Dandamudi, Seeongwook Han, and Thomas R. Kambur

57 Mapping and Ablation of Typical and Atypical Accessory Pathways 689
James P. Daubert and Edward Sze

58 Preexcited Atrioventricular Junctional Reentrant Tachycardia: Electrophysiological Characteristics of the Reentrant Circuits 717
Mohammad‐Reza Jazayeri and Mohammad‐Ali Jazayeri

59 Mapping and Ablation of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia and its Variants: Current Understanding and Controversies 751
Demosthenes G. Katritsis and Mark E. Josephson

60 Electrical Stimulation Maneuvers to Differentiate Different Forms of Supraventricular Tachycardias 766
Kevin Ng, George J. Klein, Allan C. Skanes, Lorne J. Gula, Raymond Yee, Jaimie Manlucu, and Peter Leong‐Sit

61 Mechanisms of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: What Do the Clinical Mapping Studies Teach Us? 780
Tomos E. Walters, Geoffrey Lee, and Jonathan M. Kalman

62 Imaging and Mapping of Arrhythmias in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy 798
Mark S. Link, Christopher Phelan, Mohamed Aljaabari, and N. A. Mark Estes, III

63 Mapping and Ablation of Supraventricular Arrhythmias in Congenital Heart Disease 809
Paul Khairy

64 Cardiac Mapping and Imaging: Arrhythmias in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease 824
Sabine Ernst

Part VII Mapping and Imaging of Ventricular Arrhythmias

65 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Normal Hearts 833
David J. Callans, Fermin C. Garcia, and Pasquale Santangeli

66 The Combination of a Basket Catheter and EnSite Mapping System Improves Catheter Ablation of Right Ventricle Outflow Premature Ventricular Contraction 843
Takashi Tokano and Yuji Nakazato

67 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias: Patients with Non‐Ischemic Cardiomyopathy 854
Roy M. John and William G. Stevenson

68 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease 864
Elizabeth DeWitt and Edward P. Walsh

69 Substrate Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia in Structural Heart Disease 881
Jorge Romero, David Briceno, Carola Gianni , Sanghamitra Mohanty , J. David Burkhardt , Soo Kim, Amin Al‐Ahmad, Andrea Natale , and Luigi Di Biase

70 Coronary Mapping and Ablation of Arrhythmias 894
Sercan Okutucu and Ali Oto

71 Endocardial Catheter Pace Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardias 901
Mithilesh K. Das, John M. Miller, Deepak Bhakta, Gopi Dandamudi, and Thomas R. Kambur

72 Resetting and Entrainment Phenomena: Application to Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardia 911
Mark E. Josephson, Jesus Almendral, Eduardo Castellanos, Teresa Barrio‐Lopez, and Mercedes Ortiz

73 Mapping and Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Fibrillation 922
Ghassen Cheniti, Meleze Hocini, Nathaniel Thompson, Arnaud Denis, Josselin Duchateau, Ruairidh Martin, Masateru Takigawa, Antonio Frontera, Gregoire Massoullie, Konstantinos Vlachos, Takeshi Kitamura, Michael Wolf, Nicolas Derval, Frederic Sacher, Pierre Jais, Remi Dubois, and Michel Haissaguerre

74 Mapping and Ablation in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy: Epicardial and Endocardial Mapping and Long‐Term Results 934
Fabrizio Assis and Harikrishna Tandri

75 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Cardiac Sarcoidosis 947
Matthew M. Zipse, Wendy S. Tzou, and William H. Sauer

76 Cardiac Mapping and Imaging in Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias in Chagas Disease Undergoing Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia 960
Cristiano Faria Pisani, Mauricio Scanavacca, and Andre D’Avila

77 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients with Different Cardiomyopathies (Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, Amyloidosis, etc.) 970
Jonathan Chrispin and Saman Nazarian

78 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias of Unusual Sites 978
Srikant Duggirala and Edward P. Gerstenfeld

79 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Coronary Artery Disease 992
Tanyanan Tanawuttiwat and Joseph E. Marine

80 Epicardial Mapping in Different Ventricular Tachycardia Substrates: Technique and Instrumentation, Short‐ and Long‐term Results 1007
Henry H. Hsia and Zhenning Nie

81 Usefulness of the 12‐Lead ECG to Identify Epicardial Ventricular Substrate and Epicardial Ventricular Tachycardia Site of Origin 1028
Victor Bazan and Francis E. Marchlinski

82 Mapping and Imaging of Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia 1050
Rakesh Latchamsetty and Frank Bogun

83 Scar‐Related Ventricular Tachycardia Mapping and Ablation Using Contrast‐Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1062
Antonio Berruezo, Juan Fernandez‐Armenta, Diego Penela, Juan Acosta, Josep Brugada, Lluis Mont , and Beatriz Jauregui

Part VIII Future Directions and Technologies in Cardiac Mapping and Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias

84 Myocardial Elastography 1073
Elisa Konofagou

85 Electromechanical Wave Imaging 1083
Elisa Konofagou

86 Principles of Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Myocardium: Clinical Applications 1096
Mohammad Shenasa, Hossein Shenasa, and Javad Rahimian

87 Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tractography of the Heart 1113
Choukri Mekkaoui and David E. Sosnovik

88 Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cardiac Electrophysiology 1124
David E. Sosnovik

89 Real‐Time MRI Mapping and Ablation 1132
Sebastian Hilbert, Philipp Sommer, Ingo Paetsch, Cosima Jahnke, and Gerhard Hindricks

90 Robotic Navigation for Atrial Fibrillation: Mapping and Ablation 1137
Jonathan S. Steinberg and Robert Altman

91 Mapping and Ablation in Patients with VT Storm: Role of Neuraxial Therapeutics 1140
Olujimi A. Ajijola, Kalyanam Shivkumar, and Marmar Vaseghi

92 Appropriateness of Mapping and Imaging Modalities in Interventional Electrophysiology 1152
Emily P. Zeitler and Sana M. Al‐Khatib

93 How to Avoid Complications of Mapping and Ablation 1161
David E. Haines

94 Summary and Consensus of Guidelines for Cardiac Mapping and Ablation 1174
David Spragg and Hugh Calkins

95 A Roadmap to a Non‐invasive Radiosurgical Approach to Ablate the Pulmonary Vein Antra for an Effective Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation: Basic and Technical Principles 1182
Javad Rahimian, Artour Torossian, and Mohammad Shenasa

96 Future of Cardiac Mapping 1193
Douglas L. Packer and Deepak Padmanabhan

97 The Evolution of Cardiac Mapping: Past, Present, Future 1212
Mohammad Shenasa, Atul Verma, and Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar

Epilogue by Denis Noble 1228

Index 1229