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Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System

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Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System

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Description

A guide to the interface between forensic anthropology and the United States legal system

Designed for forensic anthropologists at all levels of expertise, Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System offers a comprehensive examination of how to effectively present osteological analyses, research and interpretations in the courtroom. Written by noted experts, the book contains an historical perspective of the topic, a review of current legislation that affects expert testimony as well as vital information on courtroom procedure and judicial expectation of experts. 

A comprehensive book, Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System explains how to prepare case reports and offers suggestions for getting ready for pre-trial interviews. The book also includes detailed information on affidavits, fee structures and dealing with opposing experts. This book is part of the popular Wiley – American Association for Forensic Sciences series and:

  • Offers a unique volume that addresses the interface between forensic anthropology and the legal system
  • Contains detailed guidelines for expert testimony by forensic anthropologists with all levels of experience, from beginner to expert
  • Includes information from the perspective of the Judiciary in terms of process and expectations of the Court
  • Shows how to maintain independence from, and collaborate with other experts
  • Presents detailed explanations of current legislation impacting forensic science

Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System is an information-filled guide for practitioners of the rapidly growing field that integrates forensic sciences and the judicial system.

Notes on contributors xiii

Preface xix

Series preface xxiii

Foreword xxv

Acknowledgments xxix

About the editors xxxi

Glossary xxxiii

Part I Context

1 Confrontation: where forensic science meets the sixth amendment 3
Jennifer C. Love and Laura C. Fulginiti

1.1 Sixth amendment 4

1.1.1 Ohio v. Roberts, 448 U.S. 56 (1980). Argued November 26, 1979 – decided June 23, 1980, 5

1.1.2 Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004). Argued November 10, 2003 – decided March 8, 2004, 7

1.1.3 Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts, 557 U.S. 305 (2009). Argued November 10, 2008 – decided June 25, 2009, 8

1.1.4 Bullcoming v. New Mexico, 564 U.S. 647 (2011). Argued March 2, 2011 – decided June 23, 2011, 10

1.1.5 Williams v. Illinois, 567 U.S. 50 (2012). Argued December 6, 2011, – decided June 18, 2012, 11

1.2 Impact on forensic practitioners 12

1.A Appendix 14

1.A.1 Example of Florida application to compel testimony 16

1.A.2 Example of Arizona court order in response to Florida request 17

References 17

2 “Somewhere in this twilight”: the circumstances leading to the National Academy of Sciences’ report 19
Thomas Holland and Christian Crowder

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 The long road to Daubert 20

2.2.1 The Frye standard of general acceptance 20

2.3 The federal rules of evidence 22

2.4 The rise of the toxic tort 24

2.5 Daubert and the supremacy of the FRE 25

2.6 The aftermath of Daubert 28

2.7 Llera Plaza and the assault on fingerprints 28

2.8 Fear, reality, and forensic anthropology 30

2.9 The gauntlet is thrown: the NAS gets involved 31

2.10 The CSI effect 31

2.11 The congressional response 32

2.12 The forensic sciences respond 33

2.13 Picking up the gauntlet 34

2.14 Conclusions 35

Notes 37

References 38

3 From the laboratory to the witness stand: research trends and method validation in forensic anthropology 41
Jonathan D. Bethard and Elizabeth A. DiGangi

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Research in forensic anthropology – a bibliometric survey 43

3.3 Court decisions and research 48

3.4 Conclusion and a path forward 49

Acknowledgments 50

References 50

4 Expertise and the expert witness: contemporary educational foundations of forensic anthropology 53
Katelyn L. Bolhofner and Andrew C. Seidel

4.1 A brief historical overview of the discipline 54

4.2 The educational background of early forensic anthropologists 55

4.3 The forensic anthropologist as expert witness 57

4.4 Current educational programs and training opportunities 58

4.4.1 Contemporary educational programs for forensic anthropologists 59

4.4.2 Casework and training opportunities 63

4.5 Conclusion and future directions 65

References 67

Part II The rubber meets the road

5 Transparency in forensic anthropology through the implementation of quality assurance practices 71
Julie M. Fleischman, Michal L. Pierce, and Christian M. Crowder

5.1 Introduction 71

5.2 Overview of laboratory quality assurance and management 74

5.2.1 Corrective and preventive actions 74

5.3 Training and continuous education 74

5.4 Importance of QA for anthropologists 76

5.5 Quality assurance for forensic anthropology methods and equipment 77

5.5.1 Establishing laboratory SOPs 77

5.6 Various measures of quality 79

5.7 Implications of QA in the courtroom 85

5.7.1 Legal rulings affecting anthropology 85

5.8 Accreditation 86

5.9 Conclusions 86

References 87

6 Report writing and case documentation in forensic anthropology 89
Lauren Zephro and Alison Galloway

6.1 The audience(s) 90

6.2 The report begins with documentation of workflow 91

6.3 Chain of custody 94

6.4 Managing the information flow 94

6.5 Processing the remains and storage considerations 96

6.6 Contemporaneous bench notes and standard forms 96

6.7 Casting radiography and other methods of documentation 98

6.8 The report 98

6.8.1 Format of the case report 98

6.8.2 Background 99

6.8.3 Condition of the remains 100

6.8.4 Biological profile 101

6.8.5 Trauma analysis 102

6.8.6 Postmortem interval and the time since death 105

6.8.7 Report summary and disposition 106

6.9 Appendices 106

6.10 Final steps 107

6.11 Conclusion 108

References 108

7 Skull shots: forensic photography for anthropologists 109
Lauren Zephro and Alison Galloway

7.1 Equipment 110

7.2 Taking photographs with an eye to courtroom presentation 110

7.3 Labeling photographs 117

7.4 Photomicroscopy and Videography 118

7.5 Image processing 119

7.6 Conclusion 120

References 121

8 The peer review process: expectations and responsibilities 123
Kristen Hartnett-McCann, Laura C. Fulginiti, Alison Galloway, and Katherine M. Taylor

8.1 Introduction 123

8.2 Historical use of peer review 124

8.3 Principles underlying peer review in Forensic Anthropology 125

8.4 Available guidance on peer review 126

8.5 Considerations 128

8.6 Current status of peer review in forensic anthropological casework 130

8.7 Recommendations on peer review of forensic anthropology case work 131

8.8 Conclusions 136

Acknowledgments 136

8.A Example of a peer review form (modified from Dana Austin, personal communication) 137

8.B Example of a peer review form (modified from Lauren Zephro, personal communication) 138

References 138

9 The United States justice system and forensic anthropology: preparing for court 141
Daniel G. Martin and Laura C. Fulginiti

9.1 The United States court system 141

9.1.1 Types of cases 142

9.2 Understanding the judicial process 143

9.2.1 The criminal process 144

9.2.2 The civil process 148

9.3 The role of the forensic anthropologist 151

9.3.1 Criminal cases 151

9.3.2 Civil cases 160

9.4 The courtroom: etiquette and pitfalls 162

References 165

10 Litigation graphics in the courtroom presentation of forensic anthropology 167
Gary Hodges

10.1 Color 169

10.2 Font 170

10.3 Layout 170

10.4 Clarity of purpose 172

10.5 The problem-solution approach to visual aids 172

10.6 Case study 174

10.7 Conclusion 180

References 181

11 Maintaining independence in an adversarial system: expert witness testimony in forensic anthropology 183
Eric J. Bartelink, Laura C. Fulginiti, Alison Galloway, and Katherine M. Taylor

11.1 Criminal vs. civil cases 185

11.2 Courtroom roles and rules 187

11.3 Case studies 189

11.3.1 Case study 1 189

11.3.2 Case study 2 191

11.3.3 Case study 3 193

11.3.4 Case study 4 195

11.4 Conclusion 196

References 197

12 Valuing your time: appropriate calculation of fees and expenses as an expert witness 199
Alison Galloway, Eric J. Bartelink, and Kristen Hartnett-McCann

12.1 History of expert witnesses and compensation 200

12.2 Models of compensation 200

12.2.1 Retainers 201

12.2.2 Fee for service 201

12.2.3 Fee for service considerations 203

12.2.4 Pro bono 205

12.2.5 Reasonable expenses 206

12.3 Unethical billing practices 207

12.4 Invoicing 208

12.5 The professional expert 209

12.6 Conclusions 210

12.A Appendix 211

References 212

Index 213