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Research Design and Analysis: A Primer for the Non-Statistician

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Research Design and Analysis: A Primer for the Non-Statistician

Leslie D. Rosenstein

ISBN: 978-1-119-56361-7 May 2019 272 Pages

Description

A concise, straightforward overview of research design and analysis, helping readers form a general basis for designing and conducting research

The practice of designing and analyzing research continues to evolve with advances in technology that enable greater technical analysis of data—strengthening the ability of researchers to study the interventions and relationships of factors and assisting consumers of research to understand and evaluate research reports. Research Design and Analysis is an accessible, wide-ranging overview of how to design, conduct, analyze, interpret, and present research. This book helps those in the sciences conduct their own research without requiring expertise in statistics and related fields and enables informed reading of published research.

Requiring no background in statistics, this book reviews the purpose, ethics, and rules of research, explains the fundamentals of research design and validity, and describes how to select and employ appropriate statistical techniques and reporting methods. Readers gain knowledge central to various research scenarios, from sifting through reports of meta-analyses and preparing a research paper for submission to a peer-reviewed journal to discussing, evaluating, and communicating research results. This book:

  • Provides end-to-end guidance on the entire research design and analysis process
  • Teaches readers how to both conduct their own research and evaluate the research of others
  • Offers a clear, concise introduction to fundamental topics ideal for both reference and general education functions
  • Presents information derived from the author’s experience teaching the subject in real-world classroom settings
  • Includes a full array of learning tools including tables, examples, additional resource suggestions, complete references, and appendices that cover statistical analysis software and data sets

Research Design and Analysis: A Primer for the Non-Statistician is a valuable source of information for students and trainees in medical and allied health professions, journalism, education, and those interested in reading and comprehending research literature.

List of Tables and Figures 5

Introduction 11

Section 1 15

Chapter 1: The Purpose and Ethics of Research 15

The Purpose and Risks of Research 15

History of Harm to Humans 17

Ethical Issues in the Social Sciences 26

History of Harm to Animal Subjects in Research 29

Ethics, Principles, and Guidelines 33

Statutes and Regulations Protecting Humans and Animals in Research 38

More about Informed Consent 44

The Importance of Freedom to Withdraw 54

Separation of Provider-Researcher Role 55

Undue Influence 58

Anonymity 59

Section 2 63

Chapter 2: Research Validity 63

Internal Validity 65

External Validity 90

Chapter 3: Research Designs 101

The Lingo 101

Between-Subjects Designs 104

Within-Subjects Designs/Repeated Measures 111

Between-Within Subjects Designs (Mixed Factorial/Split-Plot Designs) 114

Latin Square Designs 120

Double Latin Square Designs 125

Graeco-Latin and Hyper Graeco-Latin Square Designs 126

Nesting 126

Matching 128

Blocking 129

Non-Experimental Research 130

Case Studies 131

Section 3 136

Chapter 4: Interpretation 136

Probability and Significance 136

The Null Hypothesis, Type I (α), and Type II (β) Errors 138

Power 140

Managing Error Variance to Improve Power 144

Power Analyses 145

Effect Size 146

Confidence Intervals and Precision 150

Chapter 5: Parametric Statistical Techniques 154

Population Parameters versus Sample Statistics 155

Data 156

Central Tendency 158

Distributions 167

Dependent Variables 178

To Scale or Not to Scale 183

t Tests 186

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting t Tests 194

The NOVA's and Mixed Linear Model Analysis 195

ANOVA 196

ANOVA with a Multifactorial Design 200

Main Effects and Interactions 202

ANCOVA 210

MANOVA/MANCOVA 215

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting ANOVA/ANCOVA/MANOVA 220

Repeated Measures: ANOVA-RM and Mixed Linear Model Analysis 221

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Repeated Measures Analyses 230

Correlation and Regression 232

Regression and Multiple Regression 239

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Correlation and Regression 244

Logistic Regression 246

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Logistic Regression 250

Discriminant Function Analysis 250

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Discriminant Function Analysis 253

Multiple Comparisons 253

Chapter 6: Nonparametric Statistical Techniques 259

Chi-Square 260

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Chi-Square 264

Median Test 265

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Median Tests 268

Phi coefficient 269

Statistical Software Packages for Calculating the Phi coefficient 271

Mann Whitney U Test (Wilcoxon Sank Sum Test) 272

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting a Mann Whitney U Test 275

Sign Test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test 276

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Sign Tests 279

Kruskal-Wallis Test: 280

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting a Kruskal-Wallis Test 284

Rank-Order Correlation 284

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Rank Order Correlations 288

Chapter 7: Meta-Analytic Studies 290

The File Drawer Effect 292

Analyzing the Meta-analytic Data 294

How to Read and Interpret a Paper Reporting a Meta-analysis 297

Statistical Software Packages for Conducting Meta-analyses 300

Section 4 302

Chapter 8: Disseminating Your Research Findings 302

Preparing a Research Report 302

Presenting Your Findings at a Conference 321

Chapter 9: Concluding Remarks 324

Why Is It Important to Understand Research Design and Analysis as a Consumer? 324

Research Ethics and Responsibilities of Journalists 336

Responsibilities of Researchers 339

Conclusion 340

Appendix A: Data Sets and DataBases 342

Contents of a Data Set 342

Missing Data and Data Entry Errors 349

Database Programs 351

Database and Data Set Summary 362

Appendix B: Statistical Analysis Packages 365

SAS®, SPSS®, R, and Stata® 365

Sample Statistical Analyses Using SAS(r) 370

Appendix C: Helpful statistics Resources 398

Statistics Textbooks 398

Statistics Websites 401

Glossary 403

References 426

Index 447