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Handbook of Public Administration, 3rd Edition




Handbook of Public Administration, 3rd Edition

James L. Perry, Robert K. Christensen

ISBN: 978-1-119-00432-5 February 2015 Jossey-Bass 840 Pages

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The fundamentals of public administration, from the world's leading practitioners

Handbook of Public Administration is the classic, comprehensive guide to the field, featuring original writings from the world's foremost public administration thought leaders and practitioners. Intended to help both public administration students and practitioners navigate administrative challenges, overcome obstacles, and improve effectiveness, this guide provides a complete overview of the entire field. The information is organized into seven parts representing key domains of knowledge and practice that are essential for effective public administration. These reflect changes in the state of modern public administration, the factors that influence policies and programs, the mechanics of how government works, and the tools that help administrators get things done. Readers will find insightful discussions on the challenges of contemporary governance and the ethics of public administration, as well as practical guidance on the everyday operations that bring effective policies and programs to life.

Students and experienced practitioners alike will appreciate the well-rounded approach to issues public administrators face every day. The book is complete enough to act as a text, but organized logically for quick reference for specific problems or situations. Readers will:

  • Understand the challenges posed by the changing context of public administration
  • Explore how relationships and decisions influence public policies and programs
  • Learn the critical skills and tools public administrators must master to be effective
  • Explore the ethics and liabilities of public administration, and what it means to take part

The role of public administration is evolving, and the changing nature of the field will impact the way policies and programs are designed and implemented. This book fully explores current and upcoming changes domestically and internationally against the backdrop of public administration fundamentals. For the student or professional seeking a deeper understanding of the public administrator's role, Handbook of Public Administration is a clear, comprehensive resource.

Foreword xvii
Paul A. Volcker

Preface xxi
James L. Perry and Robert K. Christensen

The Editors xxvii

The Contributors xxxi

Acknowledgments xlvii

Part One: Governing for Collective Action 1

1 Governing in an Age of Transformation 5
Donald F. Kettl

The Changing Environment 6

Transformation 11

From the Administrative State to Stateless Administration 19

Summary 21

2 The Changing Character of the American Intergovernmental System 23
Laurence J. O’Toole Jr.

Knowledge about Effective Practice 25

Implications 35

Summary 36

3 Governance in an Era of Partnerships 38
Barbara C. Crosby, Melissa M. Stone, and John M. Bryson

Clarifying Terms 40

The Environment and Its Effects on Collaborations 42

Environmental Effects on a Collaboration’s Governance Processes and Structures 47

Implications 51

Summary 53

4 Governing in a Global Context 55
Jonathan G. S. Koppell

Organizational Responses to Globalization 56

Public Administration in the Age of Globalization 63

Implications of Transnational Organization Design for Public Administration and Management 68

Summary 69

Part Two: Building Infrastructures for Accountability 73

5 Understanding How Public Law Reinforces Administrative Responsibility 77
Phillip J. Cooper

Contemporary Challenges and Classic Issues 78

Classic Conceptions and Contemporary Governance 81

Public Law Responsibility in Different Forms in Today’s Context 83

Law’s Meaning at Two Critically Important Levels: Effective Practice and Legitimacy 89

Summary 95

6 Advancing Good Government through Fighting Corruption 97
Milena I. Neshkova and Allan Rosenbaum

Definition, Forms, and Consequences of Corruption 99

Theories of Corruption 101

Empirical Evidence on Corruption 107

Strategies for Reducing Corruption 111

Summary 118

7 Using Transparency to Reinforce Responsibility and Responsiveness 120
Gregory A. Porumbescu and Tobin Im

Knowledge about Effective Practice 121

Research Findings and Evidence about Effective Practice 124

Judgments about Effective Practice Grounded in Administrative Experience 130

Implications 134

Summary 135

8 Using Public Participation to Enhance Citizen Voice and Promote Accountability 137
Tina Nabatchi, Jack Alexander Becker, and Matt Leighninger

Understanding Accountability 138

Understanding Public Participation 140

Summary 150

Part Three: Implementing Policy Using Tools of Collective Action 153

9 Developing Effective Relations with Legislatures 157
Anne M. Khademian and Fatima Sparger Sharif

The Context of Legislative Liaison Work 159

Structural and Procedural Elements of Managing Legislative Relations 163

Strategic and Tactical Elements of Managing Legislative Initiatives: No

Surprises 170

Summary 179

10 Designing Effective Programs 180
Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee, and Jeremy Rayner

Components of Public Policy and Effective Program Design 181

Policy Programs and Policy Design: A Short History 184

Principles for Designing Programs: Policy-Program Linkages (I) 187

Principles for Designing Programs: Program-Measure Linkages (II) 191

Summary 195

11 Using Grants to Achieve Public Purposes 197
Sean Nicholson-Crotty

Scope and Mechanisms of the Grant-in-Aid System 198

The Politics of Grant Distribution 201

Managing Federal Grants-in-Aid 204

Summary 212

12 Contracting in Pursuit of Public Purposes 215
Zachary S. Huitink, David M. Van Slyke, and Trevor L. Brown

Fundamentals 217

Outlook 231

Conclusion 233

Summary 234

13 Coproducing Public Services with Service Users, Communities, and the Third Sector 235
Tony Bovaird and Elke Loeffler

What We Know about Effective Practice in Coproduction 238

Implications 247

Summary 249

14 Advancing Public Good through Entrepreneurship 251
Wolfgang Bielefeld

Knowledge about Effective Practice 252

Research Findings 255

Implications 268

Summary 269

Part Four: Managing for Public Performance 271

15 Leading Public Organizations Strategically 275
Richard M. Walker, Chan Su Jung, and Gong-Rok Kim

Knowledge about Effective Strategy Content Practices 277

Research Findings 280

Implications 288

Summary 291

16 Managing Effective Collaborations 293
Michael McGuire and Chris Silvia

Collaborative Public Management 295

Managing Awareness 298

Managing Boundaries 300

Managing Constraints 302

Managing Deliberations 305

Managing External Constituencies 307

Summary 309

17 Tracking the Quality of Services 312
Harry P. Hatry

The Brief History and Limitations of Service Quality Measurement 313

Need for Multiple Types of Performance Indicators 314

Sources of Data and Data Collection Procedures 316

Improving the Usefulness of Performance Measurement Systems 320

Uses for Service Quality Information 328

Problems in Performance Measurement 329

Role of Ad Hoc Program Evaluations 330

Summary 331

18 Evaluating the Performance of Public Programs 333
Kathryn E. Newcomer

Context for Evaluation of Government Performance 335

Evaluation Practice in the Twentieth-First Century 339

Using Evaluation to Improve Performance 347

Summary 351

19 Motivating Employees Using Public Service 353
Wouter Vandenabeele and Nina Mari Van Loon

Theories and Evidence about Public Service Motivation 354

Research Findings and Evidence 358

Implications and Application: Harnessing the Power of Public Service Motivation 363

Summary 365

20 Realizing the Promise of Diversity 366
David W. Pitts and Sarah E. Towne

Defining and Understanding Organizational Diversity 367

Frameworks for Understanding Organizational Diversity and Work Outcomes 369

Strategies for Managing Organizational Diversity 373

Evolving Research on Diversity and Inclusion 376

Future Directions for Research and Practice 379

Summary 381

21 Understanding and Overcoming Resistance to Organizational Change 382
Sergio Fernandez

Resistance to Change 383

Sources of Resistance to Change 386

Overcoming Resistance to Change 392

Summary 396

Part Five: Developing Effective Administrative Systems 399

22 Performance Budgeting 403
Alfred Tat-Kei Ho

Performance Budgeting Practices around the World 404

Institutional and Organizational Constraints on Performance Budgeting Practices 407

Implications for Performance Budgeting Design and Practices 411

Summary 414

23 Designing and Administering Revenue Systems 416
Yilin Hou

Government Revenues 417

Reliable Revenue Systems 418

Patterns and Trends of Revenue Systems 419

Evaluation Criteria of Revenue Systems 419

Recent Research and Empirical Evidence about the Criteria 423

Revenue System Administration 427

Improving Current Systems 429

Summary 434

24 Managing E-Government 436
M. Jae Moon and Eric W. Welch

Advances in Theories and E-Government Studies 437

Advances in E-Government Practice 443

Moving toward E-Governance for Open, Collaborative, and Integrative Government 450

Critical Success Factors for the Management of E-Government 453

Summary 455

25 Designing Social Media Strategies and Policies 456
Ines Mergel

Distinguishing Types of Social Media Tools 459

Current Social Media Practices in the Public Sector 461

Designing a Social Media Strategy and Policy 462

Managerial Challenges for Implementing Social Media in the Public Sector 467

Summary 468

26 Compensating Public Sector Employees 469
Jared J. Llorens

The Unique Context of Public Sector Compensation 470

The Case of the US Federal Government 472

Challenges for Practice and Research 481

Practical Guidance for Public Managers and Policymakers 482

Summary 484

Part Six: Sharpening the Public Administrator’s Skill Set 487

27 Enacting Collective Leadership in a Shared-Power World 489
Sonia M. Ospina and Erica Gabrielle Foldy

Collective Leadership and Democratic Governance: What We Know 490

Enacting Collective Leadership: What Research Tells Us 495

Enacting Collective Leadership inside Organizations 495

Enacting Collective Leadership in Complex, Shared-Power Environments 497

Enacting Collective Leadership in Large Collaborative Networks 499

Implications: Convergences and Cornerstones of Collective Leadership 502

Summary 506

28 Negotiating for the Public Good 508
Lisa Blomgren Amsler

What to Negotiate: Problems and Context 509

When to Negotiate and When Not To 509

Why Negotiate: Empirical Evidence on Practice 510

How to Negotiate: Tools and Skills to Prepare for and Initiate Negotiation 511

Principled or Interest-Based Negotiation and Positional or Hard Bargaining 519

How Not to Negotiate and How to Recognize Hard Bargaining 524

Summary 526

29 Becoming and Being an Effective Collaborator 528
Rosemary O’Leary

Knowledge about Effective Practice 529

Common Themes in the Literature 530

Implications for Applying This Knowledge to Public Administration Practice 541

Summary 545

30 Communicating Effectively 546
James L. Garnett

Applying Knowledge about Effective Communication Practice 547

Implications and Lessons from Hard Knocks Experience 559

Summary 562

31 Developing Intrapersonal Skills 564
Maria P. Aristigueta and Robert B. Denhardt

Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Skills 565

Developing Intrapersonal Skills 567

Practical Advice for Developing Intrapersonal Skills 573

Summary 577

Part Seven: Professionalizing Public Administration Practice 579

32 Embracing Ethical Principles for Public Action 583
Brian N. Williams

Reexamining the Historical Meaning of Public Service 585

How Best to Guard the Guardians? 588

Emerging Opportunities to Embrace Ethical Principles in Public Action: A View from Below 591

Out of Darkness and into the Light: Implications for Consistent Ethical Actions 594

Conclusion 596

Summary 597

33 Understanding the Obligations of Codes of Ethics 598
Liza Ireni-Saban

Codes of Ethics as Markers of Public Administration Professional Identity 600

Measuring the Effectiveness of Codes of Ethics in Public Administration 605

Assessing the Effective Implementation of Codes of Ethics in Public Administration 607

Comparative Analysis of Codes of Ethics Implementation Efforts 608

Summary 614

34 Understanding Your Liability as a Public Administrator 616
Stephanie P. Newbold

Knowledge about Effective Practice 620

Implications 632

Summary 633

35 Effective Governance, Effective Administrators 636
James L. Perry and Robert K. Christensen

What Distinguishes Effective Governance? 637

What Makes an Effective Public Administrator? 643

Public Administration as a Profession 648

References 650

Index 747